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Nicholas L. Holt, Katherine A. Tamminen, Danielle E. Black, James L. Mandigo and Kenneth R. Fox

The purpose of this study was to examine parenting styles and associated parenting practices in youth sport. Following a season-long period of fieldwork, primary data were collected via interviews with 56 parents and supplemented by interviews with 34 of their female children. Data analysis was guided by Grolnick's (2003) theory of parenting styles. Analyses produced five findings: (1) Autonomy-supportive parents provided appropriate structure for their children and allowed them to be involved in decision making. These parents were also able to read their children's mood and reported open bidirectional communication. (2) Controlling parents did not support their children's autonomy, were not sensitive to their children's mood, and tended to report more closed modes of communication. (3) In some families, there were inconsistencies between the styles employed by the mother and father. (4) Some parenting practices varied across different situations. (5) Children had some reciprocal influences on their parents' behaviors. These findings reveal information about the multiple social interactions associated with youth sport parenting.

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Melanie S. Hill, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Larry J. Nelson and Alexander C. Jensen

, fear, and anxiety (high avoidance motive). Others, referred to as unsociable, are believed to simply have a preference for being alone due to a low approach (but also low avoidance) tendency. Finally, some individuals actively avoid social interactions due to high avoidance and low approach motivations

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Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers and Peter Iserbyt

recess. 21 , 22 Previous results of children’s play and social behaviors during recess are consistent and found that boys’ group sizes tended to be larger than girls. 23 , 24 Boys engaged more in sports activities, whereas girls mostly engaged in sedentary play. 23 , 24 The social interactions between

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Ali Al-Yaaribi and Maria Kavussanu

comes from research examining social support, which refers to social interactions aimed at inducing positive outcomes ( Bianco & Eklund, 2001 ) and resembles prosocial behavior. Specifically, DeFreese and Smith ( 2013 ) found that perceived support availability and satisfaction with social support by

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J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch and Travis A. Flitton

interactions (e.g.,  Goodger, Gorely, Lavallee, & Harwood, 2007 ; DeFreese & Smith, 2014 ). In contrast, sport-based engagement has been shown to be positively associated with more optimal constellations of psychosocial outcomes (e.g.,  DeFreese & Smith, 2013a ). Cumulatively, more adaptive social

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Justin A. Haegele, Takahiro Sato, Xihe Zhu and T. Nicole Kirk

addition, instances of negative social interactions, such as bullying, are commonly described in the extant literature ( de Schipper et al., 2017 ; Haegele & Kirk, 2018 ; Lieberman et al., 2006 ). These instances can be exacerbated when physical education teachers’ negative perceptions of the abilities

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Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto and Narihiko Kondo

, 10 anxiety, 11 , 12 and mental well-being, 13 have been confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The effects of exercise on mental health might be modulated by social context. In particular, according to the social interaction hypothesis, engaging in exercise with others might have more

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Simone Pettigrew, Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Anne-Marie Hill, Liz Bainbridge, Gill Lewin, Phil Airey and Keith Hill

) Lack of social networks (−) Level of support from loved ones (+) (−) Social interaction (+) Participation prompted by others (+) (−) Other patrons (−) (+) Institutional/organization Venue characteristics (−) Promotional activities (+) Identity as member (+) Instructor quality (−) (+)  community

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga

’s values, and to compare and increase their social acceptance among their peer groups ( Steinberg, 2016 ). Furthermore, compared with children and adults, adolescents show increased risk-taking behavior ( Steinberg, 2010 ), and such risk-taking behavior also involves behavior in social interactions. A

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Jeroen Koekoek and Annelies Knoppers

& Jarret, 2014 ). This approach to group activities implies that children develop more than only fundamental motor skills in PE. The social interactions involved in learning in a group also contain relational or affective elements ( Barker et al., 2015 ). The nature of these interactions suggests that