Ongoing debates about appropriate foci and growth of sport management research, application, theory, and training are evidence of the field’s growing pains. These growing pains also occur in other fields in which they function as a means to expand and elaborate the paradigms through which fields of inquiry grow and mature. In this study, a panel of 17 leading sport management scholars from around the globe responded to three iterations of a Delphi questionnaire probing their views about the status and future of the field. Panelists agreed that stronger research, additional cross-disciplinary research, a stronger link between theory and practice, enhanced infrastructure, and improved doctoral training are desirable objectives. They disagreed, however, about the appropriate academic home for sport management, what constitutes quality research, the roles of qualitative vs. quantitative research, and the relative value of basic vs. applied research. The results show that by actively engaging in debates over the issues identified in this study, sport management scholars can explore new ways of perceiving, thinking, and valuing that could enable proficient and constructive development of the field.
Carla A. Costa
This paper outlines the sport management curricula adopted by the Rand Afrikaans University in South Africa. The literature that provided the framework and the local conditions that influenced the curriculum design are described. The differences between the curriculum models generally found in North America and the present model are noted.
This paper, from the Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Award Lecture presented at the NASSM 2012 Conference in Seattle, outlines the merits and challenges of interdisciplinary research for the field of sport management. This alternative approach involves relating, integrating, and relocating disciplinary thinking to arrive at a mutually-determined research problem that represents new ways of conceptualizing phenomena. It enables moving away from the monodisciplinary research that characterizes much of our field to examine phenomena from different angles, and perhaps more effectively close the research-practice gap with knowledge derived from multiple perspectives. The author argues that it is time to engage in interdisciplinary research in sport management as no one discipline has all the answers; rather, “it takes a village” to solve the complex problems in our world.
Joy T. DeSensi, Dennie R. Kelley, Mary Dale Blanton and Patricia A. Beitel
This study specifically determined (a) employer expectations of sport managers, (b) employer evaluation of educational sport management programs and curricula, (c) college/university faculty/student evaluation of components of existing sport management programs, and (d) the interrelationships among these groups. The results of this study identified the commonalities within and between business/agency groups and college/university faculty and students. Results of the business/agency needs assessment indicated major differences across settings for academic/experiential requirements, employment needs, workload distributions, and job evaluation criteria. Evaluation of the commonalities/ differences provide indication for curricular planning. Also, differences were apparent between the curricular evaluations of the college/university faculty and business/agency personnel, suggesting the need to evaluate curricular content and determine where changes should/should not be made. There is support for the theoretical conjecture that one concentration will not meet the needs of personnel for all business/agency settings.
Sally R. Ross and Janet B. Parks
This study examined 115 undergraduate sport management students’ attitudes toward women’s roles in the workplace and three variables that might explain those attitudes: perspective taking, gender self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexist language. The participants, 88 men and 27 women, were enrolled in one midsize university in the Midwestern United States. On average, the participants were ambivalent about women’s roles. Women were significantly more supportive of women’s roles than were men (p < .001). Taken together, the ability to take the perspective of others and attitudes toward sexist language uniquely explained 16% of the variance in men’s attitudes toward women. Neither perspective taking, nor gender self-esteem, nor attitudes toward sexist language correlated significantly with the women’s attitudes toward women. Women’s gender self-esteem was inversely related to their attitudes toward women. Based on the results, suggestions for recruitment, curriculum development, and classroom strategies for enhancing sport management students’ attitudes toward women are presented.
Brenda G. Pitts and Karen E. Danylchuk
This study examined the current textbooks in sport management using the quantitative content analytic research method. Sport management books selected for examination were limited to those written in English published from 1990 through to November 2006 inclusive. Of the 129 books representing 14 categories analyzed, the greatest number of books was in the categories of management (n = 36) and marketing (n = 27). These categories were followed by law (n = 13), finance (n = 9), and event management (n = 8). The majority of the books (88%) were authored. Among the authors and editors, 79% were male. The majority of books (85%) did not indicate a target audience. The average year of publication of all books was 2001, with almost three-quarters (73%) being published from the year 2000 onwards. The number of publishers was 40, of which the vast majority was in the United States.
According to Morgan, our understanding of organizational life can be informed by a number of images of organization. In this article it is argued that in sport management research one or two of these images have dominated the field, to the exclusion of others. As such, we have developed only a partial and limited view of the organizational and managerial reality of sport organizations. If we are to enhance our understanding of the structure and processes of sport organizations we need to explore alternative images of these organizations, as this will ultimately help us produce better managers.
James E. Bryant
This perspective suggests that sport management is interdependent with sport sociology as specialization areas, and that in order for researchers in sport management to understand the social product of sport it is critical that they recognize a positive theoretical relationship between sport management and sport sociology. This paper outlines examples of sport management interdependence with sport sociology through brief discussions including deviance and ethics, economics, social stratification, patriarchy, race and ethnicity, and marketing and research. Through these examples it is suggested that sport sociology provides a base for those in sport management to achieve an understanding of the social product of sport.
Janet B. Parks, Patricia A. Shewokis and Carla A. Costa
Statistical power analysis involves designing and interpreting research with attention to the statistical power (probability) of the study to detect an effect of a specific size. Statistical power analysis, which is based on the interdependence of sample size, alpha, effect size, and power, is acknowledged by scholars of various disciplines as an indispensable component of high quality research. This paper reviews basic principles associated with power analysis and demonstrates its importance by comparing the meaningfulness of significant findings in two studies of job satisfaction. The perspective advanced in this paper is that the use of statistical power analysis will strengthen sport management research and will enable researchers to expand the body of knowledge in a systematic, coherent fashion.
This paper discusses the quantity and quality of administrative/management research in sport and physical education. The historical foundations of sport management are reviewed followed by a brief analysis of selected textbooks, and masters and doctoral studies. A shift to a slightly more theoretical perspective of the textbooks was noted. Theses tended to reflect a more theoretical orientation during the post-1965 period. The bulk of the research was descriptive in design and was directed toward post-secondary institutions. A major emphasis was on leaders and leadership behavior. The conclusions suggest that future research should improve the theoretical base and strive to make the knowledge sensible and useful. Additionally, increased attention to noneducational organizations is recommended.