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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

stress–response hormesis, wherein a low level of oxidative stress can enhance defense by increasing the expression of antioxidant proteins and enzymes ( Niki, 2018 ). In addition, in muscles, ROS are essential signaling molecules for adaptation to exercise, including skeletal muscle hypertrophy ( Powers

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Daniel Birrer

significant information. To treat NFOR/OTS effectively, practitioners must shift their focus from training and recovery schedules to a comprehensive understanding of the athlete’s holistic biopsychosocial stress-response process ( Jones & Tenenbaum, 2009 ). This widens treatment options to include

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Vera Camões-Costa, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, David Dixon, Isabella Russo and Zoya Huschtscha

fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentration ( Costa et al., 2019b ; Costa et al., 2017b ). In addition, exercise stress has the potential to reduce gastrointestinal transit and enterocyte cell activity through mesenteric and submucosal plexus deactivation linked with the natural stress response

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Daniel J. Brown, Rachel Arnold, Martyn Standage and David Fletcher

), which have also been suggested to influence thriving (see Fletcher & Sarkar, 2012 ; Sarkar & Fletcher, 2014a ). Moreover, research has highlighted various psychological skills (e.g., goal-setting, imagery) that are believed to assist with adaptive stress responses and relate to sporting success and

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Tom Clifford

suggest that high doses should be avoided because of the potential negative effects suppressing postexercise stress signals such as superoxide could have for functional adaptations, including muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity (see Merry & Ristow, 2016 , for review). Nonetheless, because the stress

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

-anthocyanin content of tart Montmorency cherries is proposed to reduce the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to strenuous exercise, such as a marathon ( Dimitriou et al., 2015 ; Howatson et al., 2010 ), or consecutive days of intermittent high-intensity activity ( Bell et al., 2014 ). This may be

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards and Afroditi Stathi

/gnz003 Steptoe , A. , Owen , N. , Kunz-Ebrecht , S.R. , & Brydon , L. ( 2004 ). Loneliness and neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory stress responses in middle-aged men and women . Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29 ( 5 ), 593 – 611 . PubMed ID: 15041083 doi:10.1016/S0306