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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann

subjective self-report measures since they reflect the individually perceived recovery status of the respective athlete. These instruments aim at the assessment of changes in psychological states such as mood and stress, but primarily encompass the measurement of recovery in reaction to acute or chronic

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Gohei Kato, Tomoyuki Arai, Yasuhiro Morita and Hiroaki Fujita

outdoors, increases opportunities for physical activity and has been known to be beneficial ( Levasseur et al., 2015 ; Shimada et al., 2010 ). Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that one’s subjective sense of well-being improves if more time is spent in a natural environment ( White, Pahl, Wheeler

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Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler and Serge Brand

only report poorer subjective sleep quality, but also have less favorable objective sleep patterns, as measured via electroencephalography (EEG; Brand, Beck, Hatzinger, et al., 2010 ; Ekstedt et al., 2006 ; Söderström, Ekstedt, Akerstedt, Nilsson, & Axelsson, 2004 ). Finally, previous investigations

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

period, but to our knowledge no previous research has reported physiological performance effects, which makes it difficult to draw decisive conclusions or compare the 2 studies to others. Previous research has reported improvements in mood, subjective sleepiness, alertness, and vigor 25 – 27 following

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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

quadriceps strength and voluntary activation were also present in both the active tDCS and sham conditions when observing the pre and post time points. There were no differences in subjective scoring for the KOOS Pn and KOOS Sx. Both VL and VM %EMG max activity significantly declined following the 20-minute

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Cédrick T. Bonnet

/body movements in the fixation task because these relations could not directly test the model. Indeed, there are no precise gaze shifts in this task. In Bonnet et al. ( 2017 ), we also showed that the subjective cognitive involvement was significantly higher in searching than in free-viewing task. Moreover

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Emily R. Hunt, Cassandra N. Parise and Timothy A. Butterfield

the best and most current literature that measured the effects of conservative, nonoperative ACL treatment on quadriceps strength and patient-perceived function using isokinetic dynamometry, the single-leg hop test, or the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form. Focused

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Emmanuel Frimpong, Joanne A. McVeigh and Rebecca M. Meiring

expenditure below 1.5 metabolic equivalents while in a sitting or reclined posture ( Grøntved & Hu, 2011 ). SB can be measured subjectively (using self-report questionnaires) and objectively (with activity monitors such as accelerometers or posture monitors) ( Atkin et al., 2012 ). Many studies have used self

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Pamela Wicker, Sören Dallmeyer and Christoph Breuer

Literature Review Subjective Well-Being The concept of well-being, or subjective well-being (SWB), reflects individuals’ evaluations of their lives, which can be both affective and cognitive in nature ( Diener, 2000 ). It consists of several separable components, including a global judgment of life

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

, college athlete with no injury). Several different knee-specific PROMs have been developed, such as the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form (IKDC), Knee Outcome Survey Sports Activity Scale, Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and Lysholm