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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

large volumes despite high sweat rates explains BM losses of up to 10% in race winners in hot-weather marathons (e.g.,  Beis et al., 2012 ). We recommend that athletes develop a personalized and practiced race plan that optimizes fluid and CHO status within the prevailing conditions and opportunities of

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estimate change in plasma volume (ΔPV). Pre- and post-practice body weight (BW) and total body water (TBW) were measured by bioelectrical impedance scale. Additionally, fluid intake and sweat rate (g/h) were calculated. Basing on USG, UC and Uosm of morning urine samples: 60%, 28% and 20% of subjects were

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke

decreases plasma volume, sweat rate, and stroke volume during exercise, thereby increasing heart rate and heat storage—all of which occur less following active sweating. 30 Thus, with limited recovery time following weigh-in, boxers would be less compromised following active sweating. Whereas, in the other

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Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou, Neil Armstrong, Thomas Rowland and Han C.G. Kemper

children’s thermoregulatory capability, especially during exercise in the heat and their allegedly low heat tolerance ( 13 ). At the time, in view of the observed differences between children and adults (particularly, children’s lower sweating rate), it was widely assumed that children were at a relative

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

tolerate ingestion of a CHO-electrolyte solution at a rate similar to their sweat rate during 90 min of moderate-intensity running. This was achieved without any noticeable change in the gastric emptying rate. Moreover, it seems that gastric emptying can be specifically adapted to the type of nutrient, as

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

recommended 40 mL/kg/d ( 10 ). Considering the variability in sweat rates during adolescence ( 12 ), the fluid needs of young athletes should be monitored regularly. Young athletes should be encouraged to be sufficiently hydrated before training and matches, especially in hot environments. Methodological

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

consumption relative to the deficit in BM. Another possible explanation for the observed dehydration could be high sweat rates, which, although not measured in this study, have been reported in winter-sport athletes exercising in cold climates ( Meyer et al., 2011 ; Sawka et al., 2007 ). Further

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

absolute terms compared with jumpers or CE athletes, due to their higher BM. Future research should endeavor to characterize the energy demands of training, as well as the dietary habits of throwers. While sweat rate and fluid balance studies on throwers are lacking, their larger body surface area and

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

proper hydration ( Armstrong et al., 2016 ). However, past recommendations emphasizing this were largely intended for situations in which dehydration might develop rapidly from high sweat rates associated with high exercise intensities ( Hew-Butler et al., 2015 ), which is not applicable to moderate