Clinical and field experiences in physical education teacher education programs have gradually been added to the student teaching experience to allow student teachers more opportunities to develop teaching skills. The quality of these experiences appears to depend largely on the many contextual variables the student teachers confront rather than the successful performance of the teaching skills being practiced. If beginning physical education teachers are to share in a pedagogy developed from research in classroom management, instructional time, and teaching strategies, and if teaching skills are to be developed specific to these areas, then repeated supervised practice in a variety of settings is needed. The teacher education program described contains a sequentially arranged pattern of nine clinical and field experiences culminating in the final student teaching experience. The essential features of the pedagogical experiences are detailed, emphasizing time engaged in practice teaching, teaching skill focus, supervisory/data collection focus, and pupil teacher ratio.
Alice M. Buchanan
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of Hellison’s (1995) responsibility model (TPSR) by staff at an instructional sports camp for at-risk youth. Through ethnographic interviews and observations, three recurring themes were identified that represented contextual challenges to teaching responsibility: (a) understanding and implementing TPSR, (b) perceptions of respect and disrespect, and (c) issues of control. The camp staff varied in their interpretations and implementations of TPSR, with some emphasizing its empowerment potential, while others were unable to relinquish control. These staff viewed TPSR as essentially a disciplinary device. Some of the staff modeled the same attributes that they demanded of the youngsters, while others were inflexible, authoritarian, and disrespectful. Those who were successful in implementing TPSR as suggested by Hellison used the strategies of teachable moments, feedback, and reflection to facilitate self-awareness and empowerment.
W. James Weese and Shawn Beard
The best universities pride themselves on developing the next generation of leaders as do the top sport management programs. Many sport management programs offer a leadership course, some at the graduate level. However, two questions emerge when discussing the teaching of leadership, namely, what do students need to know about area, and how can the topic be most effectively taught? A recent 12-month educational leave provided a cherished opportunity for the lead author to delve into the latest advancements in leadership and leadership development. The coauthor on this paper took a leadership course in his graduate sport management program and offered the perspective of an end-user. The authors provide an overview of the leadership development literature, profile three unique leadership courses offered in other disciplines, and provide sport management professors with information they should consider in developing and delivering their courses in leadership, especially at the graduate level.
Kevin Patton, Melissa Parker and Erica Pratt
The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogy of facilitation within physical education professional development (PD). Specific research questions were: 1) What were the self-identified pedagogical strategies employed by facilitators in PD?, and 2) From the perspective of the participants, what strategies contributed to their growth as learners? Participants included fifteen PD facilitators and 88 teachers from eight selected professional learning communities in the U.S. and Europe. Data sources included interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three participant-centered pedagogical strategies reflected facilitators’ methods and teachers’ perceptions: (a) learning as doing: providing structure without dictating, (b) learning as trying: creating and testing new ideas, and (c) learning as sharing: public presentation of work. By teaching without telling, purposeful facilitator actions contributed to the development of an environment that encouraged teachers to become active participants in the creation of knowledge and development of professional capital.
Michelle A. Grenier, Andrew Horrell and Bryan Genovese
Having a disability and being a teacher can be a critical site for examining practices associated with ability, competence, and pedagogy. While there is a growing literature base that examines the experiences of students with disabilities in physical education, there is virtually no research that examines the experiences of physical education teachers with disabilities. Using the capability approach, this article explores the experiences of a physical education teaching intern with a physical disability, significant school members, and the students he interacted with through interviews and documents. The results yielded 3 primary themes. The first, "the fluid nature of the disability discourse," demonstrated the complexity of disability and explored the contrast between static tendencies that stereotype disability and the disability experience. The second theme, "doing things my way," reflected the intern’s need to distinguish himself as a teacher by defining contexts for experiencing competence. The third and final theme, "agent of change," explored how the intern’s experiences as a teacher with a disability informed his educational narrative.
Sandy K. Beveridge and Sandy K. Gangstead
This study investigated the effects of teaching experience and instruction on visual retention and knowledge of selected sports skills. Prior to and after 30 hours of instruction, 31 experienced teachers and 29 undergraduates were administered the Utah Skills Analysis Test (USKAT) to assess both visual retention of performance and knowledge of correct motor patterns. Before instruction, teachers performed slightly better than undergraduates on the perceptual portion of USKAT, whereas there were no significant differences on the knowledge portion. A repeated measures analysis indicated significant treatment effects across groups on both perceptual and knowledge measures, with undergraduates exhibiting greater pretest to posttest gains than teachers on both dependent variables. A one-way ANOVA conducted on gain score data of subjects blocked into high, medium, and low functional performance levels based upon pretreatment scores revealed significant differences in perceptual performance between the blocks. It was concluded that (a) both teachers and undergraduates demonstrated the ability to improve performance in qualitative skills analysis, (b) undergraduates appear more responsive to specific instructional protocol than experienced teachers, and (c) entry level performance may influence the impact of the protocol on sport skill analysis performance.
Peter Iserbyt, Bob Madou, Lieven Vergauwen and Daniel Behets
This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards accomplishes motor goals almost as well as a teacher-centered format in a technical sport like tennis. In addition, it is discussed that peer mediated learning settings with task cards could offer a powerful learning environment, emphasizing social as well as motor goals in physical education.
Stephen M. Roth
Higher education faculty have many responsibilities, with teaching as arguably the most public of those yet also the task for which many are least prepared. Professional development around teaching and learning can provide faculty with the knowledge and skills needed to improve student learning while also improving job satisfaction. The present paper describes the use of faculty learning communities as a best practice for professional development around teaching. Such communities engage a group of participants over time and provide a way to impart knowledge and resources around teaching and learning, encourage application of new skills in the classroom, and evaluate and refect on the effectiveness of those trials. Research shows that time spent in faculty learning communities translates into improvements in both teaching effectiveness and student learning. Resources are provided for administrators interested in developing and supporting faculty learning communities around teaching and learning.
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Much research on physical education preservice teachers’ (PTs) perceptions of effective teaching during early field experiences (EFEs) or student teaching has indicated a concern for keeping pupils well-behaved, busy, and happy (e.g., Placek, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an EFE, combined with a methods course developed from the knowledge base on effective teaching, on PT conceptions of the teaching-learning process. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and a reflective questionnaire (O’Sullivan & Tsangaridou, 1992). PT responses were analyzed by employing Goetz and LeCompte’s (1984) analytic induction method. PTs were concerned with pupil learning or elements of teaching related to pupil learning, focused primarily on teaching technique, and believed that knowledge of sports and games was a vital component of teacher effectiveness, frequently mentioning that they were lacking in this area.
Reginald T.A. Ocansey
This article describes a systematic approach (an Effective Supervision Guide) for organizing data generated during student teaching. The Effective Supervision Guide (ESG) allows supervisors and student teachers to identify and/or trace changes in teaching performance. The ESG involves (a) establishing a baseline of teaching performance, (b) selecting behaviors that need remediation or maintenance, (c) specifying strategies for remediation and maintenance of targeted behaviors, (d) establishing performance criteria for targeted behaviors, and (e) indicating beginning and ending dates for targeted behaviors.