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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

of CBPA breaks. 21 Factors found to influence CBPA implementation included (1) access to CBPA tools, 22 (2) implementation self-efficacy, 22 – 24 (3) participation in professional development, 22 – 24 (4) teaching experience, 25 (5) school operating conditions (eg, academic expectations and

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Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr

maximum dose to suit the school-day routine. TT skills were assessed using a 36-item TT test designed by a researcher (M.V.) and the teaching team based on the state curriculum guidelines for stage-2 mathematics. 27 The classroom teachers chose the numbers 3 and 9 (first term) and 4 and 8 (second term

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Michelle A. Grenier, Andrew Horrell and Bryan Genovese

Having a disability and being a teacher can be a critical site for examining practices associated with ability, competence, and pedagogy. While there is a growing literature base that examines the experiences of students with disabilities in physical education, there is virtually no research that examines the experiences of physical education teachers with disabilities. Using the capability approach, this article explores the experiences of a physical education teaching intern with a physical disability, significant school members, and the students he interacted with through interviews and documents. The results yielded 3 primary themes. The first, "the fluid nature of the disability discourse," demonstrated the complexity of disability and explored the contrast between static tendencies that stereotype disability and the disability experience. The second theme, "doing things my way," reflected the intern’s need to distinguish himself as a teacher by defining contexts for experiencing competence. The third and final theme, "agent of change," explored how the intern’s experiences as a teacher with a disability informed his educational narrative.

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Sandy K. Beveridge and Sandy K. Gangstead

This study investigated the effects of teaching experience and instruction on visual retention and knowledge of selected sports skills. Prior to and after 30 hours of instruction, 31 experienced teachers and 29 undergraduates were administered the Utah Skills Analysis Test (USKAT) to assess both visual retention of performance and knowledge of correct motor patterns. Before instruction, teachers performed slightly better than undergraduates on the perceptual portion of USKAT, whereas there were no significant differences on the knowledge portion. A repeated measures analysis indicated significant treatment effects across groups on both perceptual and knowledge measures, with undergraduates exhibiting greater pretest to posttest gains than teachers on both dependent variables. A one-way ANOVA conducted on gain score data of subjects blocked into high, medium, and low functional performance levels based upon pretreatment scores revealed significant differences in perceptual performance between the blocks. It was concluded that (a) both teachers and undergraduates demonstrated the ability to improve performance in qualitative skills analysis, (b) undergraduates appear more responsive to specific instructional protocol than experienced teachers, and (c) entry level performance may influence the impact of the protocol on sport skill analysis performance.

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Stephen M. Roth

Higher education faculty have many responsibilities, with teaching as arguably the most public of those yet also the task for which many are least prepared. Professional development around teaching and learning can provide faculty with the knowledge and skills needed to improve student learning while also improving job satisfaction. The present paper describes the use of faculty learning communities as a best practice for professional development around teaching. Such communities engage a group of participants over time and provide a way to impart knowledge and resources around teaching and learning, encourage application of new skills in the classroom, and evaluate and refect on the effectiveness of those trials. Research shows that time spent in faculty learning communities translates into improvements in both teaching effectiveness and student learning. Resources are provided for administrators interested in developing and supporting faculty learning communities around teaching and learning.

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Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Much research on physical education preservice teachers’ (PTs) perceptions of effective teaching during early field experiences (EFEs) or student teaching has indicated a concern for keeping pupils well-behaved, busy, and happy (e.g., Placek, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an EFE, combined with a methods course developed from the knowledge base on effective teaching, on PT conceptions of the teaching-learning process. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and a reflective questionnaire (O’Sullivan & Tsangaridou, 1992). PT responses were analyzed by employing Goetz and LeCompte’s (1984) analytic induction method. PTs were concerned with pupil learning or elements of teaching related to pupil learning, focused primarily on teaching technique, and believed that knowledge of sports and games was a vital component of teacher effectiveness, frequently mentioning that they were lacking in this area.

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Reginald T.A. Ocansey

This article describes a systematic approach (an Effective Supervision Guide) for organizing data generated during student teaching. The Effective Supervision Guide (ESG) allows supervisors and student teachers to identify and/or trace changes in teaching performance. The ESG involves (a) establishing a baseline of teaching performance, (b) selecting behaviors that need remediation or maintenance, (c) specifying strategies for remediation and maintenance of targeted behaviors, (d) establishing performance criteria for targeted behaviors, and (e) indicating beginning and ending dates for targeted behaviors.

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Peter Iserbyt, Bob Madou, Lieven Vergauwen and Daniel Behets

This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards accomplishes motor goals almost as well as a teacher-centered format in a technical sport like tennis. In addition, it is discussed that peer mediated learning settings with task cards could offer a powerful learning environment, emphasizing social as well as motor goals in physical education.

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Lijuan Wang, Amy Sau-ching Ha and Xu Wen

This research primarily aimed to examine the compatibility of teaching perspectives of teachers with the Physical Education (PE) curriculum in China. The Teaching Perspective Inventory (Pratt, 1998) was used to collect data from 272 PE teachers. Descriptive statistics, MANOVAs, and correlational procedures were used for quantitative data analysis. Results indicated that PE teachers had a common pattern of a single dominant teaching perspective. Student personal growth was addressed but less attention was given to changes in society and learners’ thinking. The findings suggest that the teachers’ perspectives may be incompatible with the focus of the current Chinese PE curriculum. Furthermore, the significant correlations among the teaching perspectives reflect the interdependence of these viewpoints. As a result, teachers’ perspectives on teaching need to be considered thoroughly when PE reformers attempt to modify the curricula. Finally, gender, years of teaching experience, and teaching level were the factors associated with the variation in teaching perspectives. However, academic degree and sampling methods (convenient sampling and random sampling) were not.

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Timo Jaakkola and Anthony Watt

The main purpose of the study was to analyze teaching styles used in Finnish physical education. Another aim was to investigate the relationships between background characteristics of teachers and use of teaching styles. The participants of the study were 294 (185 females and 109 males) Finnish physical education teachers. The teachers responded to an electronic questionnaire accessed through a link delivered to them by e-mail. The instrument included background information items (gender, teaching experience, education, school level, mean class size) and questions pertaining to ‘teacher use’ and ‘perceived benefits to students’ of the various teaching styles. The results of the study revealed that teachers used the command and practice styles of teaching most frequently and the self-check and convergent discovery styles least frequently. The trend was to use more teacher-centered than student-centered styles. The teachers perceived the practice and divergent production styles as most and the reciprocal and convergent discovery styles as least beneficial for their students.