Television is the most immediate and compelling medium for sports coverage. Consequently, the sports presentations that it delivers, particularly championship series, attract a vast and devoted audience. This study provided a detailed, descriptive content analysis of the television broadcast packaging of the 1982-83 championship games, both professional and university, of the four most popular North American team sports—baseball, football, hockey, and basketball. Videotape recordings of the entire broadcast packages centered upon these games were analyzed. The program content was divided into four specific and distinct components: advertisements, pre- and postgame programs, between-play time, and live-play time. The ensuing discussion addressed the basic structure of each broadcast package, the absolute and relative data for each of the four components of the various games and, finally, the intriguing relationship between the derived data (particularly the live-play time component) and concomitant levels of viewer ratings. Concluding comments reflected on the significance of the findings and also provided considerations for future research based upon materials presented within the study.
Aaron T. Scanlan, Vincent J. Dalbo, Daniele Conte, Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Ratko Stanković, Vladimir Antić and Zoran Milanović
difficult to conduct in team sport environments. However, use of a dribble deficit allowed the precise effects of caffeine on dribbling speed to be quantified as any benefits or detriments to dribbling performance when using total dribbling time can be masked by changes in sprint speed. 6 This approach is
Dan Weaving, Nicholas E. Dalton, Christopher Black, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Padraic J. Phibbs, Michael Gray, Ben Jones and Gregory A.B. Roe
professional rugby union skills training. References 1. McLaren SJ , Smith A , Spears IR , Weston M . A detailed quantification of differential ratings of perceived exertion during team-sport training . J Sci Med Sport . 2017 ; 20 ( 3 ): 290 – 295 . PubMed ID: 27451269 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016
Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson
. 2014 ; 28 ( 9 ): 2397 – 2405 . PubMed ID: 24662233 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000458 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000458 24662233 28. Stagno K , Thatcher R , Van Someren K . A modified TRIMP to quantify the in-season training load of team sport players. J Sports Sci . 2007 ; 25 ( 6 ): 629 – 634
Stéphane Morin, Saïd Ahmaïdi and Pierre-Marie Leprêtre
Positive and negative effects of training induce apparent oscillations of performance, suggesting that the delayed cumulative effects of training on daily performance capacity (DPC) are best fitted by sine waves damped over time.
To compare the criterion validity of the impulse-response (IR) model of Banister et al and the damped harmonic oscillation (DHO) model for quantifying the training load (TL)–DPC relationship.
Six female professional volleyball players (20.8 ± 2.4 y) were monitored using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) for 9 mo to quantify TL. Countermovement-jump (CMJ) and 4-step-approach-CMJ (4sCMJ) performances were recorded once a month. Parameters of models were determined by minimizing residual-sum squares between predicted and real performances with a nonlinear regression.
DPC was best fitted by the DHO model rather than the IR model (CMJ, R 2 = .80 ±.08 and.69 ±.20, respectively; 4sCMJ, R 2 = .86 ± .09 and .67 ± .29, respectively). The damping parameter θ and the period T were positively correlated with age (ρ = 0.81, P < .05, and ρ = 0.86, P < .02, respectively).
The DHO model is a useful tool for modeling DPC as the sum of the delayed DPCs from the consecutive training and recovery days. DPC could be considered the expression of the individual process of accumulation and dissipation of fatigue induced by training. DHO-model parameters were correlated with age, which prompts one to postulate that expertise has a major influence on DPC. The DHO model will help coaches develop a greater understanding of training effects and make monitoring of the training process more effective.
Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Luis Suarez-Arrones, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, José Antonio Casajús and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
To compare the effects of unilateral and bilateral resistance training on single-leg power output, between-limbs imbalance (BLI), bilateral deficit (BLD), change of direction (COD), and linear sprinting and jumping performance in young elite basketball players.
Twenty-two young (U-16–U-19) male basketball players were randomly assigned either to an exclusive unilateral (UNI) (n = 11) or a bilateral (BIL) (n = 11) resistance-training group during a 6-wk period. Both groups training consisted of 3 unilateral or bilateral 90° back-squat sets. A postdetermined number of repetitions was set until power output dropped to <10% of maximum power (MP) output. In addition, both groups performed 2 sets of 5 unilateral or bilateral drop jumps and 2 sets of 5 unilateral or bilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ). Pre- and posttraining, performance was assessed by an incremental bilateral and unilateral squat-load test, a multiple-COD test (V-cut test), a 15-m-sprint test (7.5 + 7.5 m) with one 180° COD performed with both right (180° RCOD) and left (180° LCOD) legs, a 25-m-sprint test (5- and 15-m split time), and a CMJ test.
Within-group analyses showed substantial improvements in 180° RCOD, bilateral and unilateral MP, 25-m-sprint test, and CMJ in both groups. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in 180° LCOD, MP with right and left legs, BLI, and BLD in UNI than in BIL.
Both training programs substantially improved most of the physical-fitness tests, but only UNI reduced between-limbs asymmetry and achieved greater enhancements in actions that mostly required applying force unilaterally in basketball players.
Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch
from training sessions and matches in the preceding week and dividing this by the average of the weekly loads from the preceding 4 weeks and presented as a percentage, as described and used in other team sport studies. 27 , 28 Initially, for the purpose of interpreting the descriptive data, players
Ted Polglaze and Matthias W. Hoppe
Metabolic power ( P met ) has been proposed as a tool to estimate the energetic demands of variable-speed locomotion typically seen in team sports. 1 From the outset, it should be stated that this model is not able to fully account for the physical demands of team-sport activity, 2 , 3 but nor
Stefanie Hüttermann, Paul R. Ford, A. Mark Williams, Matyas Varga and Nicholas J. Smeeton
decision-making task required the participants to decide whether or not to pass the ball to an “open” teammate on their left or right side. We hypothesized that the team sport players would be better able to deploy their attention widely and the attentional task would be more sensitive to the effects of
Shaun J. McLaren, Michael Graham, Iain R. Spears and Matthew Weston
To investigate the sensitivity of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) as measures of internal load.
Twenty-two male university soccer players performed 2 maximal incremental-exercise protocols (cycle, treadmill) on separate days. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak blood lactate concentration (B[La]peak), and the preprotocol-to-postprotocol change in countermovement-jump height (ΔCMJH) were measured for each protocol. Players provided dRPE (CR100) for breathlessness (RPE-B) and leg-muscle exertion (RPE-L) immediately on exercise termination (RPE-B0, RPE-L0) and 30 min postexercise (RPE-B30, RPE-L30). Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences.
There were clear between-protocols differences for V̇O2max (cycle 46.5 ± 6.3 vs treadmill 51.0 ± 5.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1, mean difference –9.2%; ±90% confidence limits 3.7%), HRmax (184.7 ± 12.7 vs 196.7 ± 7.8 beats/min, –6.0%; ±1.7%), B[La]peak (9.7 ± 2.1 vs 8.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L, 15%; ±10%), and ΔCMJH (–7.1 ± 4.2 vs 0.6 ± 3.6 cm, –23.2%; ±5.4%). Clear between-protocols differences were recorded for RPE-B0 (78.0 ± 11.7 vs 94.7 ± 9.5 AU, –18.1%; ±4.5%), RPE-L0 (92.6 ± 9.7 vs 81.3 ± 14.1 AU, 15.3%; ±7.6%), RPE-B30 (70 ± 11 vs 82 ± 13 AU, –13.8%; ±7.3%), and RPE-L30 (86 ± 12 vs 65 ± 19 AU, 37%; ±17%). A substantial timing effect was observed for dRPE, with moderate to large reductions in all scores 30 min postexercise compared with scores collected on exercise termination.
dRPE enhance the precision of internal-load measurement and therefore represent a worthwhile addition to training-load-monitoring procedures.