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Susan Birrell

This paper suggests that sport sociology may be ready to move from a generally atheoretical approach to “race and sport“ to a critical analysis of racial relations and sport. Four theoretical groups are identified from the writing of racial relations scholars: bias and discrimination theories, assimilation and cultural deprivation theories, materialist and class-based theories, and culturalist or colonial theories. In the past, studies of race and sport have fit within the former two theories. A cultural studies approach that blends the latter theories is advocated in order to move toward the goal of critical theory and develop a comprehensive model for analyzing the complex of relations of dominance and subordination simultaneously structured along racial, gender, and class lines.

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Bethany Geckle

using actor-network theory (ANT). Central to the premise of ANT is the agency of non-human entities such as things, places, and even ideas. Thus, it says that equipment, nations, and gender norms all may influence sport as much as the human athletes. As such, this work should be considered within the

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Robert Weinberg

players “not to miss” or “not to double fault” will result in more misses and double faults, especially when anxious. Although the investigators provided these instructions, there is clear application to self-talk. In fact, grounding research in Wegner’s ( 1997a ) theory of ironic processes might enable

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Phillip Ward, Myung-Ah Lee and Myung-Ah Lee

In this article we provide a review of theory and research on the use of peers to influence learning outcomes in physical education. First, we summarize the empirical literature on the use of peers in general education. Next, Piaget’s equilibration theory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, and Skinner’s behavior analytic theory are discussed with particular reference to their implications for the use of peers in educational settings. This is followed by a review of findings from research studies using peers in physical education settings and includes suggestions for future research. We conclude with a discussion of implications for practice.

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William J. Morgan

The social theory of sport literature has taken a new and welcome critical turn in the last few years. That turn is revealed in the emergence of a Marxist-based corpus of literature which challenges headlong the fundamental tenets of mainstream (functionalist) sport sociology. The purpose of the present paper is to critically respond to this new critical theory of sport; in particular to its two major versions—what I call, respectively, vulgar Marxist, and hegemonic sport theory. I argue that both versions of this theory are conceptually flawed, and that these conceptual flaws are themselves ideologically grounded. The point of my criticisms, however, is not to undermine or otherwise deflect the critical thrust of this theory, but to suggest that that thrust requires a new conceptual scaffolding which is more sensitive to the ideological temperament of advanced capitalist society.

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Stéphane Perreault, Robert J. Vallerand, David Montgomery and Pierre Provencher

The purpose of the present study was to test the predictions derived from 3 models of Psychological Momentum (PM) regarding the elusive PM-performance relationship. Participants competed in one of two 12-minute bogus bicycle races. They were randomly assigned to either a no-momentum race (i.e., tied) or a positive-momentum race (i.e., coming from behind to tie). Perceptions of PM and cycling performance were measured at 4 different points in time. Results from between- and within-subject analyses demonstrated that when participants lost the lead, their perceptions of PM decreased significantly. When participants regained the lead, their perceptions of PM increased significantly. Between- and within-subject analyses of variance also showed that experiencing PM led to increased performance. However, losing PM also led to performance enhancement, presumably through negative facilitation (Cornelius, Silva, Conroy, & Petersen, 1997). Results are discussed in light of models of PM, and avenues for future research are offered.

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Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones.

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Lisa A. Kihl, Tim Richardson and Charles Campisi

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explain how student-athletes are affected by an instance of academic corruption. Using a grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1998), multiple sources of data were collected and analyzed using the constant comparison method leading to theory generation. Findings revealed that student-athletes suffer three main consequences (negative treatment, sanctions, and a sense of loss) that lead to various harmful outcomes (e.g., distrust, embarrassment, dysfunctional relationships, stakeholder separation, anger, stress, and conflict). However, the consequences also created a positive outcome displayed through a dual consciousness of corruption (resiliency and empowerment). The results are compared with existing theoretical concepts and previous research associated with the outcomes of corruption. This theory adds to our knowledge of the nature of suffering experienced by student-athletes as a result of corruption and provides direction for future research and practice.

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Victoria Emily Warburton and Christopher Mark Spray

Purpose:

In light of the extensive empirical evidence that implicit theories have important motivational consequences for young people across a range of educational settings we seek to provide a summary of, and personal reflection on, implicit theory research and practice in physical education (PE).

Overview:

We first provide an introduction to the key constructs and theoretical propositions associated with implicit theories. We then include a brief summary of the research findings on ability beliefs in school PE, which we draw on to identify several key issues that we feel are crucial to furthering our understanding of this topic. We conclude by offering a number of ideas for future research and discuss the potential misinterpretation of implicit theories when applied to professional practice in PE.

Conclusions:

We argue that researchers need to address more nuanced questions around implicit theories to prevent this area of inquiry stalling. Moreover, we need to provide teachers with more specific recommendations to help them integrate theory and research into practice.

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Anne-Marie Brouwer, Eli Brenner and Jeroen B.J. Smeets

Before an aspect of a movement that is predicted by a control theory can be considered as evidence for that theory, it should be clear that this aspect is not the result of some other property of the movement. We investigate whether this condition is met in studies that claim to provide evidence for the tau-coupling theory. This theory proposes that moving targets are intercepted at a specified goal zone by maintaining a constant ratio between the tau (time to closure) of the gap between the hand and the goal zone and the tau of the gap between the hand and the moving target. In line with the theory, previous research has found a linear relationship between these two decreasing taus during the last part of such a movement. To investigate whether this linear relationship was a side-effect of smooth successful movements, we modeled smooth ballistic hand movements that were independent of the target's movement but led to successful interception. We found that the resulting taus of decreasing gaps were also related linearly. We conclude that this relationship cannot be considered as evidence for the tau-coupling theory.