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Yanping Duan, Walter Brehm, Petra Wagner, Pak-Kwong Chung, Sebastian Graf, Ru Zhang and Gangyan Si

Background:

A successful transition from late adolescence to adulthood is essential. Physical activity (PA) can support this process and lead to positive health outcomes. The change in PA from inactive to active stages is influenced by psychosocial correlates, and as such, this study tested the relationships among psychosocial correlates, stages of change for PA and health outcomes in university students from Hong Kong (n = 404) and Germany (n = 366).

Methods:

The questionnaire contained (1) PA and stages of change; (2) 10 psychosocial correlates including outcome expectations, affective attitude, barriers, self-efficacy, body-concept, plans, intrinsic motivation, activity emotions, assessment of activity situation, and social support; and (3) 5 health outcomes, including fitness, subjective well-being, health satisfaction, physical complaints, and BMI.

Results:

Barriers and intrinsic motivation were the critical psychosocial variables related to stages of change. Specific planning was more important for Hong Kong students’ stage progression within inactive stages. Competitive or enjoyable PA programs were more effective for male students moving from inactive to active stages. The link between stages of change for PA and health outcomes (ie, fitness, health satisfaction) was well established.

Conclusion:

Public health researchers should conduct effective psychosocial interventions that motivate young adults to engage in PA for positive health outcomes.

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Janet B. Parks and Michael E. Bartley

Scholarship expectations of many universities in the United States are becoming more stringent. The purpose of this study was to examine variables associated with the scholarship of the sport management professoriate. The participants were 266 of the 422 academics in the NASPE-NASSM Sport Management Program List (1991). Chi-square tests of independence (alpha < .004) revealed slight tendencies for (a) younger faculty to have doctorates in areas such as sport management, psychology/sociology of sport, and legal aspects of sport rather than in physical education; (b) younger faculty to have more publications than older faculty; (c) women to be concentrated in the lower ranks and salary ranges; and (d) movement toward gender parity in rank and salary. This study should be replicated in 5 years to discover if these tendencies were precursors of trends.

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Edited by John W. Loy and George H. Sage

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Marvin Washington and Richard Wolfe

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Christine Lauber, Sharon D. Rogers, Corie E. Hampton and Scott Barringer

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Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor and Randy C. Battochio

Adaptation is defined here as the end point in a process, when people respond in a positive manner to hardship, threat, and challenge, including monumental sport tests, such as international tournaments. Recently, there have been formal research investigations where adaptation has been considered as a provisional framework, with a more formal structure of pathways. Sport scholars have studied Olympic and professional athletes, provided support for a theoretical framework, and identified provisional substrategies for each pathway. In this article the authors situate adaptation within a larger discourse of related interventions, including coping and self-regulation. Subsequently, adaptation is proposed as a comprehensive intervention strategy for elite athletes during monumental sport environments.

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Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg

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Cathleen D. Zick, Ken R. Smith, Barbara B. Brown, Jessie X. Fan and Lori Kowaleski-Jones

Background:

We examine how age, life course roles, and contextual variables relate to both the composition and the overall level of physical activity in late adolescence and early adulthood.

Methods:

Data on respondents age 15 to 29 y in the 2003 American Time Use Survey are used to estimate multivariate logistic regressions that assess what factors are associated with meeting the recommended level of physical activity.

Results:

The proportion of respondents who do 30 min or more of team sports declines over the 15 to 29 y age range even after controlling for life course and contextual covariates. Parenthood, employment status, and school enrollment have selective effects on the odds of meeting physical activity recommendations.

Conclusions:

Given the declines in team sports activities, schools and public health officials should consider the potential benefits of promoting other options such as cardiovascular activities, strength training activities, and/or active transportation.

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Viviane Kostrubiec, Régis Soppelsa, Jean-Michel Albaret and Pier-Giorgio Zanone

This study investigates how motor coordination undergoes the passage from a discrete to a continuous movement régime. Participants repeated concatenated discrete movements with each hand such that one hand was lagging the other by a quarter of a cycle (i.e., with a 90° phase difference). As movement frequency increased, the tendency to persist in this relative phase competed with a progressive effect of the interlimb coupling favoring 0° and 180°. In 61% of the participants, a switch from a discrete to a continuous motion régime was accompanied by a shift toward the 0° or 180°. The 0° was more often favored than 180°. The remaining participants sustained a relative phase close to 90° even at the highest movement frequency and proved to be more accurate at the initial lowest frequency. These findings indicate that a priming effect may circumvent the tendency to produce preferred patterns and favor the production of nonpreferred patterns and that initial individual differences affect how motor coordination evolves with changing constraints.