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Joanne Kraenzle Schneider

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported exercise behavior and physiological indicators of exercise behavior (body composition and oxygen consumption measures) in older women. Three self-report exercise behavior instruments were administered in counterbalanced order. Body mass index and sums of skinfold thicknesses were used as measures of body composition. Oxygen consumption was measured using a metabolic cart during a treadmill test while women walked at approximately 70% of their heart rate reserve. Fifty-nine women participated (68.7 ± 6.0 years). Results showed that self-reported exercise behavior was moderately related to body composition measures. However, predicted maximal oxygen consumption was only weakly related to self-reported exercise behavior.

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Lucie Péloquin, Pierre Gauthier, Gina Bravo, Guy Lacombe and Jean-Sébastien Billiard

The purposes of the present study were (a) to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Price et al. (1988) 5-min walking field test, (b) to assess the validity of the test as an estimate of aerobic fitness, and (c) to derive a predictive model for estimating V˙O2 peak. The subjects were men and women age ≥50 with knee osteoarthritis. A high intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained in the reliability study, which included 60 subjects who did the 5-min walk twice within a maximum of 11 days. For the validity study, distances walked at the first walking trial were compared with V˙O2 peak values measured by a maximal treadmill test. The best predictive model included the following predictor variables: distance walked in 5 min, age, sex, and weight. Results indicate that the 5-minutc walking field test is a reliable and valid method for estimating V˙O2 peak in this population.

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Nobuo Takeshima, William F. Brechue, Setsuko Ueya and Kiyoji Tanaka

This study attempted to determine the accuracy of measuring heart rate by radial artery palpation in elderly individuals. Elderly (ELD; n = 26) and young (Y; n = 21) individuals completed 3 intensity levels of exercise on a treadmill, each carried out on a separate day. Participants determined their heart rate by palpating the radial artery (PR) after exercise. In ELD, there were significant differences between PR and electrocardiogram (ECG; p = .007). Heart-rate errors at each intensity of exercise were 7.2 ± 12.5, 6.6 ± 15.7, and 10.1 ± 16.5 beats/min. There were no differences in PR and ECG in Y. Fingertip sensitivity was significantly lower in ELD than in Y. A significant, negative correlation existed (r = -.56, n = 26) between heart-rate error and fingertip sensitivity in ELD. These data suggest that self-conducted PR by elderly individuals fails to accurately estimate heart rate. This appears to result from lessened vibrotactile sensitivity in the fingers.

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Jennifer M. Hootman, Shannon FitzGerald, Carol A. Macera and Steven N. Blair

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender-specific longitudinal association between quadriceps strength and self-reported, physician-diagnosed hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods:

Subjects were 3081 community-dwelling adults who were free of OA, joint symptoms and injuries, completed a maximum treadmill exercise test, had isokinetic knee extension and flexion and isotonic leg press strength measurements taken at baseline and returned at least one written follow-up survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results:

Women with moderate or high isokinetic quadriceps strength had a significantly reduced risk (55% to 64%) of hip or knee OA. A similar, nonsignificant trend was noted among men. Moderate isotonic leg press strength was protective for hip or knee osteoarthritis among men only.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that quadriceps weakness is an independent and modifiable risk factor for lower extremity OA, particularly among women.

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Linda Schücker, Christian Knopf, Bernd Strauss and Norbert Hagemann

The aim of this study was to examine differentiated effects of internally focused attention in endurance sports. Thirty-two active runners ran 24 min on a treadmill at a fixed speed of moderate intensity. For each 6-min block, participants had to direct their attention on different internal aspects (movement execution, breathing, or feeling of the body) or received no instructions. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to determine running economy. Results revealed that the different internal focus instructions had differentiated effects on VO2: A focus on breathing as well as a focus on the running movement led to higher VO2 than a focus on feeling of the body which showed similar VO2 as the control condition. We conclude that an internal focus of attention is solely detrimental to performance when directed to highly automated processes (e.g., breathing or movement). However, an internal focus on how the body feels during exercise does not disrupt movement efficiency.

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Tanya M.F. Scarapicchia, Catherine M. Sabiston, Ross E. Andersen and Enrique Garcia Bengoechea

Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be “contagious” through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.

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Jasmin C. Hutchinson and Costas I. Karageorghis

We examined independent and combined influences of asynchronous music and dominant attentional style (DAS) on psychological and psychophysical variables during exercise using mixed methods. Participants (N = 34) were grouped according to DAS and completed treadmill runs at three intensities (low, moderate, high) crossed with three music conditions (motivational, oudeterous, no-music control). State attentional focus shifted from dissociative to associative with increasing intensity and was most aligned with DAS during moderate-intensity exercise. Both music conditions facilitated dissociation at low-to-moderate intensities. At high exercise intensity, both music conditions were associated with reduced RPE among participants with an associative DAS. Dissociators reported higher RPE overall during moderate and high intensities. Psychological responses were most positive in the motivational condition, followed by oudeterous and control. Findings illustrate the relevance of individual differences in DAS as well as task intensity and duration when selecting music for exercise.

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Mark Watsford and Aron Murphy

This research examined the effects of respiratory-muscle (RM) training on RM function and exercise performance in older women. Twenty-six women (60–69 yr of age) were assessed for spirometry, RM strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), inspiratory-muscle endurance, and walking performance to a perceived exertion rating of “hard.” They were randomly allocated to a threshold RM training group (RMT) or a nonexercising control group (CON) for 8 wk. After training, the 22% (inspiratory) and 30% (expiratory) improvements in RM strength in the RMT group were significantly higher than in the CON group (p < .05). The RMT group also displayed several significant performance improvements, including improved within-group treadmill performance time (12%) and reductions in submaximal heart rate (5%), percentage of maximum voluntary ventilation (16%), and perceived exertion for breathing (8%). RM training appears to improve RM function in older women. Furthermore, these improvements appear to be related to improved submaximal exercise performance.

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Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.

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David M. Wert, Jessie M. VanSwearingen, Subashan Perera and Jennifer S. Brach

The purpose of this study was to assess the relative and absolute reliability of metabolic measures of energy expenditure and gait speed during overground walking in older adults with mobility limitations. Thirty-three (mean age [SD] = 76.4 [6.6] years; 66% female) older adults with slow gait participated. Measures of energy expenditure and gait speed were recorded during two 6-min bouts of overground walking (1 week apart) at a self-selected “usual” walking pace. The relative reliability for all variables was excellent: ICC = .81−.91. Mean differences for five of the six outcome variables was less than or equal to the respected SEM, while all six mean differences fell below the calculated MDC95. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that metabolic measures of energy expenditure and gait speed in older adults with slow walking speeds can be reliably assessed during overground walking, providing an alternative to traditional treadmill assessments.