Food-guide pyramids help translate nutrient goals into a visual representation of suggested food intake on a population level. No such guidance system has ever been specifically designed for athletes. Therefore, the authors developed a Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes that illustrates the number of servings per food group needed in relation to the training volume of an athlete. As a first step, an average energy expenditure of 0.1 kcal · kg−1 · min−1 for exercise was defined, which then was translated into servings of different food groups per hour of exercise per day. Variable serving sizes were defined for athletes’ different body-mass categories. The pyramid was validated by designing 168 daily meal plans according to the recommendations of the pyramid for male and female athletes of different body-mass categories and training volumes of up to 4 hr/d. The energy intake of the meal plans met the calculated reference energy requirement by 97% ± 9%. The carbohydrate and protein intakes were linearly graded from 4.6 ± 0.6–8.5 ± 0.8 g · kg−1 · d−1 and 1.6 ± 0.2–1.9 ± 0.2 g · kg−1 · d−1, respectively, for training volumes of 1–4 hr of exercise per day. The average micronutrient intake depended particularly on the dietary energy intake level but was well above the dietary reference intake values for most micronutrients. No tolerable upper intake level was exceeded for any micronutrient. Therefore, this Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes may be used as a new tool in sports nutrition education (e.g., teaching and counseling).
Samuel Mettler, Christof Mannhart and Paolo C. Colombani
Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee
Prediction Equations and Cross-Validation Statistics by Variable Method Prediction equation Adjusted R 2 MAPE SEE ALM Simple model DXA ALM = 0.0673 + (0.6732 × BIA ALM ) + (2.33507 × sex) + (0.13349 × BMI) .936 0.051 1.276 SBC DXA ALM = 0.100752 + (0.667613 × BIA ALM ) − (0.004767 × age) + (2.363436 × sex
Yaohui He, Phillip Ward and Xiaozan Wang
physical educators (SHAPE) America standards for beginning physical education teachers ( SHAPE America, 2017 ), and they are being proposed as standards for Chinese physical education teachers (Z. Yin, personal communication, July 28, 2017). In physical education, CCK and SCK have been validated in a
Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall, Paul R. Appleton and Jemma J. Murray
Recent research suggests that validation-seeking and dimensions of perfectionism may be antecedents of athlete burnout. The present investigation examined whether validation and growth-seeking mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. One-hundred and fifty canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes recruited from the top two divisions in the UK completed measures of validation and growth-seeking (GOI), perfectionism (HMPS), and athlete burnout (ABQ). Analyses supported the mediating role of validation-seeking in the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. However, while bivariate correlations indicated that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to both validation and growth-seeking, neither mediated the self-oriented perfectionism-burnout relationship. The findings suggest that validation-seeking may be an important psychological factor in the development of burnout for athletes exhibiting high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout remains unclear because of its association with multiple motives and with socially prescribed perfectionism.
John Cairney, Heather Clark, Dean Dudley and Dean Kriellaars
.7 0.9 8.0 11.9 29.7 50.5 1.2 Note. CSAPPA = Children’s Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity. Measures Existing age-appropriate and validated measures (scales and subscales) that capture the motor competence, motivation, and affective domains, as per our model, were
Justin B. Moore, John C. Hanes Jr., Paule Barbeau, Bernard Gutin, Roberto P. Treviño and Zenong Yin
The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) is a validated self-report measure of physical activity widely used to assess physical activity in children (8-14 years of age). To date, however, the instrument has been validated in largely White Canadian samples. The purpose of the present article is to determine the psychometric properties of the PAQ-C for African American, European American, and Hispanic children. Two studies were conducted in which independent samples were administered the PAQ-C, along with varying indices of cardiovascular fitness, fatness, and psychological measures related to physical activity. Results showed that the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C varied by race and that modifications might be necessary.
Phillip Ward, Fatih Dervent, Yun Soo Lee, Bomna Ko, Insook Kim and Wang Tao
This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.
The reliability, content, and concurrent validity of content maps and formulae were evaluated together with an application of the content maps and formulae. Descriptive statistics were used to report the data.
The reliability and validity of content maps was established. The new categories allowed for a finer analysis of content development. All formulae differentiated among different content expertise.
If depth of content knowledge is evidenced by tasks designed to refine, extend and apply student performance, then the content map, categories and formulae reported in this study provide tools that have utility for teachers, teacher educators and researchers.
Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani
This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards, conditional regard, intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.
Christina Evaggelinou, Nikolaos Tsigilis and Areti Papa
This study was designed to examine the underlying structure of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) in Ulrich (1985). The TGMD was administered to 644 children who were randomly divided into two groups (calibration group and validation group). The calibration group (n = 324) included 150 boys and 174 girls, and the validation group included 160 boys and 160 girls, ranging from 3 to 10 years. A two-factor model was postulated and supported. According to the model, seven variables measuring children’s ability for moving into space loaded on one factor (locomotor skills), while five variables measuring children’s ability for controlling objects loaded on the other factor (object control skills). In addition, the proposed model was found to be invariant across the two groups. Good cross-generalizability of the TGMD appears to support its validity. Physical educators working with young children may use it with confidence when assessing and planning physical education programs involving locomotor and object control skills.
Paul M. Vanderburgh and Ronald E. DeMeersman
The 12-Minute Stationary Cycle Ergometer Test (12MCET) has been developed and validated as an accurate VO2peak prediction test particularly for the injured (7). Prediction is based on body weight and total work done in 12 min at a resistance setting of 2.5 kp (men) and 2.0 kp (women) on the Monark cycle ergometer. In the development of the 12MCET a small number of subjects stated a preference for a higher resistance setting than 2.5 kp. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of the 12MCET with a resistance setting of 3.0 kp for a sample of 30 college-age men. When applied to the 12MCET, use of the 3.0 kp resistance setting overpredicted actual VO2peak by a mean of 175 ml • min−1 (p = .02). We concluded that the use of a 3.0 kp resistance setting for the 12MCET is inappropriate and that any resistance setting other than that prescribed should not be used without proper validation.