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Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini

frequently used to evaluate judo athletes have been conducted in laboratory settings (eg, treadmill, lower- or upper-body cycle ergometers). 2 , 5 , 11 Therefore, these tests present low ecological validity to prescribe and assess judo training-induced specific adaptations. 10 , 12 To counter this

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Andreas Wolff Hansen, Inger Dahl-Petersen, Jørn Wulff Helge, Søren Brage, Morten Grønbæk and Trine Flensborg-Madsen

Background:

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys, but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population.

Methods:

Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007–2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous, and sedentary intensity levels were derived from the IPAQ and compared with estimates from Acc+HR using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability of the IPAQ was also assessed.

Results:

PAEE from the 2 methods was significantly positively correlated (0.29 and 0.49; P = 0.02 and P < 0.001; for women and men, respectively). Men significantly overestimated PAEE by IPAQ (56.2 vs 45.3 kJ/kg/day, IPAQ: Acc+HR, P < .01), while the difference was nonsignificant for women (40.8 vs 44.4 kJ/kg/day). Bland-Altman plots showed that the IPAQ overestimated PAEE, moderate, and vigorous activity without systematic error. Reliability of the IPAQ was moderate to high for all domains and intensities (total PAEE intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.58).

Conclusions:

This Danish Internet-based version of the long IPAQ had modest validity and reliability when assessing PAEE at population level.

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Montassar Tabben, Laurent Bosquet and Jeremy B. Coquart

Purpose:

This study examined the effect of performance level on the validity and accuracy of middle-distance running-performance predictions obtained from the nomogram of Mercier et al in male runners.

Methods:

Official French track-running rankings for the 3000-, 5000-, and 10,000-m events from 2006 to 2014 were examined. The performance level was determined from the official reference table of the Fédération Française d’Athlétisme, and the runners were divided in 3 groups (ie, low, moderate, and high levels). Only male runners who performed in the 3 distance events within the same year were included (N = 443). Each performance over any distance was predicted using the nomogram from the 2 other performances.

Results:

No difference was found in low- and moderate-performance-level athletes (0.02 ≤ effect size [ES] ≤ 0.06, 95% limits of agreement [LoA] ≤ 6%). By contrast, a small difference in high-performance-level athletes (P < .01, 0.23 ≤ ES ≤ 0.45, 95% LoA ≤ 11.6%) was found.

Conclusion:

The study confirms the validity of the nomogram to predict track-running performance with a high level of accuracy, except for male runners with high performance level (ie, national or international). Consequently, the predictions from the nomogram may be used in training programs (eg, to prescribe tempo runs with realistic training velocities) and competitions (eg, to plan realistic split times to reach the best performance).

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Yucui Diao, Cuixiang Dong, Lisa M. Barnett, Isaac Estevan, Jing Li and Liu Ji

for a valid and reliable measure of perceived motor competence in accordance with the movement skills that children often execute in a variety of movement and physical activity environments. Thus, a pictorial instrument based on the skills in the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition (TGMD-2

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Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James

A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.

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Athanasios G. Papaioannou, Nikolaos Tsigilis, Eudoxia Kosmidou and Dimitrios Milosis

A new instrument of motivational climate in physical education is presented with the goal of measuring perceptions of teachers’ emphasis on mastery, performance–approach, performance–avoidance, and social approval goals. The measure was based on the principle of compatibility, according to which climate perceptions and achievement goals should be compatible between each other in terms of target, action domain, life context, and time. The measure was administered to 928 middle school students alongside scales of intrinsic motivation, amotivation, and satisfaction. The statistical analyses included structural equation modeling, investigation of factor correlations, correlation of this measure with intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and amotivation in physical education and investigation of intraclass correlations. The findings provide evidence of construct validity for the new measure and suggest that mastery and social approval goals can facilitate intrinsic motivation of students.

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Tim J. Gabbett and Boris Georgieff

Purpose:

To develop a skill assessment for junior volleyball players and to evaluate the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the test for detecting training-induced improvements in skill.

Methods:

Thirty junior volleyball players (mean ± SD age, 15.5 ± 1.0 years) participated in this study. Subjects performed tests of spiking, setting, serving, and passing skills on 2 separate occasions to determine test–retest reliability of accuracy. Two expert coaches evaluated the players’ technique and reevaluated it 1 month after the initial evaluation to determine the intratester reliability for technique measurements. A third expert coach determined the intertester reliability for technique measurements. The validity of the test to discriminate players of different playing abilities was evaluated by testing junior national, state, and novice volleyball players. Finally, each player participated in an 8-week skill-based training program.

Results:

Accuracy measurements and intratester and intertester ratings of players’ technique proved to be highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, r, .85 to .98, range of typical error of measurement 0.2% to 10.0%). A progressive improvement in skill was observed with increases in playing level, while training-induced improvements were present in all skill tasks.

Conclusions:

These results demonstrate that skill-based testing offers a reliable method of quantifying development and progress in junior volleyball players. In addition, the skill-testing battery was useful in successfully discriminating playing ability among junior volleyball players of varying levels, and it was sensitive to changes in skill with training. These fi ndings demonstrate that skill-based testing is useful for monitoring the development of junior volleyball players.

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Patrick B. Wilson, Gregory S. Rhodes and Stacy J. Ingraham

Purpose:

Self-report (SR) has been the primary method used to assess fluid intake during endurance events, but unfortunately, little is known about the validity of SR. The purpose of this study was to compare SR fluid intake with direct measurement (DM) during a 70.3-mile triathlon.

Methods:

Fifty-three (42 men, 11 women) individuals competing in a 70.3-mile triathlon participated in the study. On the 13.1-mile-run section of the triathlon, 11 research stations provided fluid in bottles filled with 163 mL of water or carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CEB). Participants submitted bottles 25 m past aid stations to be reweighed postrace. Participants also answered questions regarding fluid intake postrace. Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement were used to assess precision of the measures, while least-squares regression assessed linear agreement.

Results:

SR intakes during the run ranged from 0–1793, 0–1837, and 0–2628 mL for water, CEB, and total fluid, with corresponding DM intakes of 0–1599, 0–1642, and 0–2250 mL. DM and SR showed strong linear agreement for water, CEB, and total fluid (R2 = .71, .80, and .80). Mean differences between the measures on the Bland-Altman plots were small (13–41 mL), but relatively large differences (±500 mL) between the measures were apparent for some participants.

Conclusions:

SR is the predominant methodology used in field studies assessing hydration, despite little to no data confirming its validity. The results herein suggest that fluid-intake-assessment methodology should be chosen on a case-by-case basis and that caution should be used when interpreting data based on SR.

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Jeremy M. Sheppard, Tim Gabbett, Kristie-Lee Taylor, Jason Dorman, Alexis J. Lebedew and Russell Borgeaud

Purpose:

The authors conducted a study to develop a repeated-effort test for international men’s volleyball. The test involved jumping and movement activity that was specific to volleyball, using durations and rest periods that replicated the demands of a match.

Methods:

A time–motion analysis was performed on a national team and development national team during international matches to determine the demands of competition and thereby form the basis of the rationale in designing the repeated-effort test. An evaluation of the test for reliability and validity in discriminating between elite and sub-elite players was performed.

Results:

The test jump height and movement-speed test parameters were highly reliable, with findings of high intraclass correlations (ICCs) and low typical errors of measurement (TE; ICC .93 to .95 and %TE 0.54 to 2.44). The national team’s ideal and actual jump height and ideal and actual speeds, mean ± SD, were 336.88 ± 8.31 cm, 329.91 ± 6.70 cm, 6.83 ± 0.34 s, and 7.14 ± 0.34 s, respectively. The development national team’s ideal and actual jump heights and ideal and actual speeds were 330.88 ± 9.09 cm, 323.80 ± 7.74 cm, 7.41 ± 0.56 s, and 7.66 ± 0.56 s, respectively. Probabilities of differences between groups for ideal jump, actual jump, ideal time, and actual time were 82%, 95%, 92%, and 96%, respectively, with a Cohen effect-size statistic supporting large magnitudes (0.69, 0.84, 1.34, and 1.13, respectively).

Conclusion:

The results of this study demonstrate that the developed test offers a reliable and valid method of assessing repeated-effort ability in volleyball players.

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Iñigo Mujika, Greg McFadden, Mark Hubbard, Kylie Royal and Allan Hahn

Purpose:

To develop and validate an intermittent match-fitness test for water-polo players.

Methods:

Eight male junior players performed the Water Polo Intermittent Shuttle Test (WIST) twice to assess test reliability. To assess test sensitivity and validity, 104 male and female players from different competition standards and playing positions were tested. Eighteen players performed the WIST 5 times throughout a season to track fitness changes. Twelve players performed the WIST 48 hours before 4 consecutive National League games, and coaches awarded individual match-fitness scores based on game performances to assess the relationship between match fitness and test results. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (Lablood) were measured during and after each test, respectively.

Results:

Test–retest performance values were 216 ± 90 vs 229 ± 96 m (r = .98, P = .0001, coefficient of variation [CV] = 5.4%), peak HR 190 ± 8 vs 192 ± 10 bpm (r = .96, P = .0002, CV = 1.2%), and Lablood 7.0 ± 1.8 vs 6.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L (r = .84, P = .0092, CV = 8.8%). Significant differences were observed among different standards of play (range junior regional females 102 ± 10 m, senior international males 401 ± 30 m) and playing positions (field players 305 ± 154 m, center forwards 255 ± 118, goal keepers 203 ± 135 m). Test performance was lower in the early season (344 ± 118 m) than the remainder of the season (range 459 ± 138 to 550 ± 176 m). WIST performance and match-fitness scores correlated for all field players (r = .57, P = .054) but more highly for field players other than center forwards (r = .83, P = .0027).

Conclusions:

The WIST is a reliable, sensitive, and valid match-fitness test for water-polo players. It could become a useful tool to assess the effects of different interventions on match fitness.