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Luiz de França Bahia Loureiro Jr and Paulo Barbosa de Freitas

Context:

Badminton requires open and fast actions toward the shuttlecock, but there is no specific agility test for badminton players with specific movements.

Purpose:

To develop an agility test that simultaneously assesses perception and motor capacity and examine the test’s concurrent and construct validity and its test–retest reliability.

Method:

The Badcamp agility test consists of running as fast as possible to 6 targets placed on the corners and middle points of a rectangular area (5.6 × 4.2 m) from the start position located in the center of it, following visual stimuli presented in a luminous panel. The authors recruited 43 badminton players (17–32 y old) to evaluate concurrent (with shuttle-run agility test—SRAT) and construct validity and test–retest reliability.

Results:

Results revealed that Badcamp presents concurrent and construct validity, as its performance is strongly related to SRAT (ρ = 0.83, P < .001), with performance of experts being better than nonexpert players (P < .01). In addition, Badcamp is reliable, as no difference (P = .07) and a high intraclass correlation (ICC = .93) were found in the performance of the players on 2 different occasions.

Conclusions:

The findings indicate that Badcamp is an effective, valid, and reliable tool to measure agility, allowing coaches and athletic trainers to evaluate players’ athletic condition and training effectiveness and possibly detect talented individuals in this sport.

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Kenneth D. Ward, Kami Mays Hunt, Melanie Burstyne Berg, Deborah A. Slawson, Christopher M. Vukadinovich, Barbara S. McClanahan and Linda H. Clemens

Calcium intake often is inadequate in female collegiate athletes, increasing the risk for training injuries and future osteoporosis. Thus, a brief and accurate assessment tool to quickly measure calcium intake in athletes is needed. We evaluated the reliability and validity, compared to 6 days of diet records (DRs), of the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), a self-administered calcium checklist (14). Seventy-six female collegiate athletes (mean age = 18.8 yrs, range = 17–21; 97% Caucasian) were recruited from basketball, cross-country, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball teams. Athletes completed a RAM at the start of the training season to assess calcium intake during the past week. Two weeks later, a second RAM was completed to assess reliability, and athletes began 6 days of diet records (DRs) collection. At completion of DRs, athletes completed a final RAM, corresponding to the same time period as DRs, to assess agreement between the 2 instruments. The RAM demonstrated adequate testretest reliability over 2 weeks (n = 56; Intraclass correlation [ICC] = .54, p <.0001) and adequate agreement with DRs (n = 34; ICC = .41, p = .0067). Calcium intake was below recommended levels, and mean estimates did not differ significantly on the RAM (823±387 mg/d) and DRs (822±330 mg/d; p = .988). Adequacy of calcium intake from both DRs and the RAM was classified as “inadequate” (<1000 mg/d) and “adequate” (≥1000 mg/d). Agreement between the RAM and DRs for adequacy classification was fair (ICC = .30, p = .042), with the RAM identifying 84% of athletes judged to have inadequate calcium intake based on DRs. The RAM briefly and accurately estimates calcium intake in female collegiate athletes compared to DRs.

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Avish P. Sharma, Adrian D. Elliott and David J. Bentley

Context:

Road cycle racing is characterized by significant variability in exercise intensity. Existing protocols attempting to model this aspect display inadequate variation in power output. Furthermore, the reliability of protocols representative of road cycle racing is not well known. There are also minimal data regarding the physiological parameters that best predict performance during variable-power cycling.

Purpose:

To determine the reliability of mean power output during a new test of variable-power cycling and establish the relationship between physiological attributes typically measured during an incremental exercise test and performance during the variable-power cycling test (VCT).

Methods:

Fifteen trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age 33 ± 6.5 y, VO2max 57.9 ± 4.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion for determination of physiological attributes, 2 VCTs (plus familiarization), and a 30-km time trial. The VCT was modeled on data from elite men’s road racing and included significant variation in power output.

Results:

Mean power output during the VCT showed good reliability (r = .92, CV% = 1.98). Relative power during the self-paced sections of the VCT was most correlated with maximal aerobic power (r = .79) and power at the second ventilatory threshold (r = .69). Blood lactate concentration showed poor reliability between trials (CV% = 13.93%).

Conclusions:

This study has demonstrated a new reliable protocol simulating the stochastic nature of road cycling races. Further research is needed to determine which factors predict performance during variable-power cycling and the validity of the test in monitoring longitudinal changes in cycling performance.

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Daniel J. Plews, Paul B. Laursen, Yann Le Meur, Christophe Hausswirth, Andrew E. Kilding and Martin Buchheit

Purpose:

To establish the minimum number of days that heart-rate-variability (HRV, ie, the natural logarithm of square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals, Ln rMSSD) data should be averaged to achieve correspondingly equivalent results as data averaged over a 1-wk period.

Methods:

Standardized changes in Ln rMSSD between different phases of training (normal training, functional overreaching (FOR), overall training, and taper) and the correlation coefficients of percentage changes in performance vs changes in Ln rMSSD were compared when averaging Ln rMSSD from 1 to 7 d, randomly selected within the week.

Results:

Standardized Ln rMSSD changes (90% confidence limits, CL) from baseline to overload (FOR) were 0.20 ± 0.28, 0.33 ± 0.26, 0.49 ± 0.33, 0.48 ± 0.28, 0.47 ± 0.26, 0.45 ± 0.26, and 0.43 ± 0.29 on days 1 to 7, respectively. Correlations (90% CL) over the same time sequence and training phase were –.02 ± .23, –.07 ± .23, –.17 ± .22, –.25 ± .22, –.26 ± .22, –.28 ± .21, and –.25 ± .22 on days 1 to 7. There were almost perfect quadratic relationships between standardized changes/r values vs the number of days Ln rMSSD was averaged (r 2 = .92 and .97, respectively) in trained triathletes during FOR. This indicates a plateau in the increase in standardized changes/r values’ magnitude after 3 and 4 d, respectively, in trained triathletes.

Conclusion:

Practitioners using HRV to monitor training adaptation should use a minimum of 3 (randomly selected) valid data points per week.

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Katherine J. Riggen, Dale A. Ulrich and John C. Ozmun

The reliability and concurrent validity of the Test of Motor Impairment-Henderson Revision was evaluated employing a sample of preschoolers. Absolute reliability of the final test score was established by calculating the standard error of measurement (SEM). An SEM of .86 was obtained. The consistency of decisions related to motor impairment or nonimpairment was estimated by calculating the proportion of agreement index across two testing occasions and Kappa. A 90% agreement was obtained with Kappa equal to .71. Concurrent validity using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form as the criterion resulted in an 88% agreement between the two tests.

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Jianmin Guan, Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang

Two types of social goals associated with students’ academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal, and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have applied these social goal scales to high school students in physical education settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the scores produced by the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southern United States. Reliability analyses, principal components factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multistep invariance analysis across two school samples revealed that the SGS-PE produced reliable and valid scores when used to assess students’ social goal levels in high school physical education settings.

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Sébastien Duc, Vincent Villerius, William Bertucci and Frédéric Grappe

Purpose:

The Ergomo®Pro (EP) is a power meter that measures power output (PO) during outdoor and indoor cycling via 2 optoelectronic sensors located in the bottom bracket axis. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and the reproducibility of the EP compared with the SRM crank set and Powertap hub (PT).

Method:

The validity of the EP was tested in the laboratory during 8 submaximal incremental tests (PO: 100 to 400 W), eight 30-min submaximal constant-power tests (PO = 180 W), and 8 sprint tests (PO > 750 W) and in the field during 8 training sessions (time: 181 ± 73 min; PO: ~140 to 150 W). The reproducibility was assessed by calculating the coefficient of PO variation (CV) during the submaximal incremental and constant tests.

Results:

The EP provided a significantly higher PO than the SRM and PT during the submaximal incremental test: The mean PO differences were +6.3% ± 2.5% and +11.1% ± 2.1%, respectively. The difference was greater during field training sessions (+12.0% ± 5.7% and +16.5% ± 5.9%) but lower during sprint tests (+1.6% ± 2.5% and +3.2% ± 2.7%). The reproducibility of the EP is lower than those of the SRM and PT (CV = 4.1% ± 1.8%, 1.9% ± 0.4%, and 2.1% ± 0.8%, respectively).

Conclusions:

The EP power meter appears less valid and reliable than the SRM and PT systems.

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Swee Kheng Tan, Helen E. Parker and Dawne Larkin

We investigated the concurrent validity and discrimination accuracy of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form (BOTMP-SF) and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) for identifying children with and without motor impairment (MI). From a total of 69 Australian children aged from 5 to 11 years, 26 children were classified with MI according to three criteria, including the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and were age- and gender-matched with 26 non-MI controls. Performance rankings for the MI/non-MI children on BOTMP-SF and MAND tests were highly correlated (rs = .86); however, only 35% of MI cases were classified alike and 71% of cases were agreed on, overall. Comparing each test with MABC, discrimination statistics revealed MAND was the more accurate discriminator of MI, with higher sensitivity and negative predictive values than the BOTMP-SF. The MAND is a more valid test for the identification of MI in Australian children.

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Joanna E. Gelinas and Greg Reid

The purpose was to determine whether traditional learn-to-swim progressions, leading to a 10-m front and 10-m back swim, were developmentally valid for children with physical disabilities. Forty children (22 boys, 18 girls) ages 5 to 12 years participated. They were classified according to disability type, functional sport classification, mode of ambulation, and flotation device use. Developmental validity was assessed by testing the children on rhythmic breathing, front float, front glide, front swim, back float, back glide, and back swim. Each skill was deemed successful if the child accomplished all performance criteria of that skill. Atypical progression was evident if a child performed a skill without the ability to perform skills previously listed in that progression. Atypical progression occurred in 32 (80%) children in the front skills and 22 (55%) in the back skills, which indicates that the traditional learn-to-swim progressions for both the 10-m front swim and the 10-m back swim were not developmentally valid for most children with physical disabilities in the conducted research.

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Ryan M. Chambers, Tim J. Gabbett and Michael H. Cole

microsensors to quantify only tackling in rugby union, 16 with scrums, rucks, and mauls neglected. 11 Researchers have highlighted the injury risk associated with scrums, 17 predominantly in match play. 18 Currently, no other valid method for quantifying scrum workload during training or match play exists