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Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

, appears the most effective form of deception to elicit performance improvements. 5 In performance deception trials, athletes have raced against a virtual on-screen pacer whom they believed was programmed to mimic mean power output (MPO) from their previous best performance. In reality, the pacer was

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

the other athletes. Renfree et al 31 have highlighted how the behavior of an athlete can influence the pacing strategy of all the others. Specifically, Konings et al 32 reported how pacing behavior is altered depending on the pacing profile of a virtual opponent. In this case, in fact, the decision

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Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler and Deborah L. Feltz

heart rate maximum. This cycle workload wattage was determined for each participant using an Astrand-Ryhming submaximal test prior to day 1 and would generally equate to a moderate–vigorous level of intensity. Participants were represented as an avatar, they previously chose, riding on a virtual trail

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott

BOS. COM, which is a virtual point at the center of total body mass (which is dependent upon body segment alignment), and/or the COG, which is the vertical projection of the COM ( Shumway-Cook & Woollacott, 2012 ). The active alignment of one body segment with another, and the BOS, with respect to

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SUPPLEMENT North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Virtual Conference June 11–12, 2020 1 08 2020 42 S1 S1 S114 10.1123/jsep.2020-0172 jsep.2020-0172 JSEP Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 0895-2779 1543-2904 1 08 2020 42 S1 10.1123/jsep.2020.42.issue-s1

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

of pacing behavior. 2 , 4 As shown before in observational and experimental studies, an opponent could be such an affordance, inviting exercisers to adjust their pacing behavior. 4 – 6 For example, the presence of a virtual opponent has been revealed to improve performance. 5 , 7 – 9 Moreover

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

is, 2 markers on each side of the transducers and 2 markers on each side of the flywheel rotation center to create virtual markers at the fixed points where the rope runs into the ergometer flywheel on each side. The transducers were connected to an amplifier (Type 5073; Kistler Instruments AG), and

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

encourage participation. c Reinforcement of PA participation was offered by research personnel through nonverbal gestures (eg, fist bump), verbal praise (eg, “Great seeing you today!”), or earning tokens (eg, virtual tokens as a stamp in a PA passport to earn prizes or immediate tangible rewards such as

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Allison J. Nelson, Patrick T. Hall, Katherine R. Saul and Dustin L. Crouch

elbow exoskeleton based on shape memory alloy wire actuators . Appl Bionics Biomech . 2017 ; 2017 : 1 – 11 . PubMed ID: 29104424 doi:10.1155/2017/1605101 10.1155/2017/1605101 40. Ferrati F , Bortoletto R , Pagello E . Virtual modelling of a real exoskeleton constrained to a human

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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

kinesthesia and the use of MRs of intentional movements in children and concluded that the development of kinesthetic perception takes many years to fully mature and is thought to end around late adolescence. Using a virtual radial Fitts task, Caeyenberghs et al. ( 2009 ) reported rapid growth in the