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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

models, based on mathematically specified “rules” about how members interact, that represent human behavior in groups. These models allow researchers to conduct virtual experiments that test theoretical propositions that attempt to predict future member behavior. These predictions can be further

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts and Martin G. Edwards

spatial and temporal locations as per a slalom task. The virtual reality display presented the driver’s view out through the front window of the car as if actually driving the car. Training and Experimental Phases Participants completed a 90-min training phase period where they had to achieve two criteria

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado

time can negatively influence performance in both cognitive and motor tasks ( 9 ). Furthermore, leisure activities involving virtual environments (eg, electronic games, social media) are very popular among school age populations. These activities may potentially induce mental fatigue. Conclusion The

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

. Participants were outfitted with two rear-facing rigid bodies (one on the head and one on the right scapula), which were used as references for five digitized virtual markers (left and right ears, left and right glenohumeral joints, and the 10th thoracic vertebrae). The digitized points were used to calculate

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Mostafa Zarei, Hamed Abbasi, Abdolhamid Daneshjoo, Mehdi Gheitasi, Kamran Johari, Oliver Faude, Nikki Rommers and Roland Rössler

N , Yusof A . The effects of comprehensive warm-up programs on proprioception, static and dynamic balance on male soccer players . PLoS ONE . 2012 ; 7 ( 12 ): e51568 . PubMed ID: 23251579 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051568 12. Donath L , Rössler R , Faude O . Effects of virtual reality

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Rob van der Straaten, Oren Tirosh, William A. (Tony) Sparrow and Rezaul Begg

interlimb coordination . J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci . 2005 ; 60 : 312 – 319 . PubMed ID: 15860466 doi: 10.1093/gerona/60.3.312 11. Baram Y , Miller A . Virtual reality cues for improvement of gait in patients with multiple sclerosis . Neurology . 2006 ; 66 : 178 – 181 . PubMed ID: 16434649

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Marlowe Pecora, Luc Tremblay and Matthew Heath

LED (i.e., the circle in the schematic) was illuminated and provided a virtual representation of the limb (i.e., veridical limb position is shown only for illustrative purpose). Once the home location was pressed, a 1,000-2,000 ms uniformly distributed foreperiod was initiated, after which a target

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

contact point was in the contact zone, a set of virtual muscles were included to represent the reaction forces. 26 The glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) was modeled as a spherical joint (3 rotational degrees of freedom) between the humerus and scapula ( wiki.anyscript.org ). The only ligament included

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

6), according to terrain topography (Figure  1 ). The maximal difference in elevation was 24 m with a total climb of 38 m for the entire course. The time each skier spent in a section was calculated based on virtual split times. Speed for each section was calculated by dividing the length of a

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Marcus Ngantcha, Eric Janssen, Emmanuelle Godeau, Virginie Ehlinger, Olivier Le-Nezet, François Beck and Stanislas Spilka

strongly gender dependent, with boys more involved into gaming, whereas girls are more committed to virtual social interactions with their peers. 42 , 43 Our results corroborate findings of previous research, which established relationships between long ST exposure and poor health conditions, including