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Daniel P. Joaquim, Claudia R. Juzwiak and Ciro Winckler

should be encouraged to adjust the consumption of these food groups in order to guarantee the intake of vitamins, minerals, and other antioxidants. A high score was found for the “Meats, eggs and legumes” component for both sexes. Regarding this finding, sports guidelines recommend that athletes, among

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Guadalupe Garrido, Anthony L Webster and Manuel Chamorro

The article describes a study that evaluated the adequacy of 2 different menu settings in a group of elite adolescent Spanish soccer players. Five-day food intake was assessed on 2 occasions, while athletes were consuming a flexible “buffet-style” diet (B; n = 33) and a fixed “menu-style” diet (M; n = 29). For all principal meals of the day food weighing was performed, and snacks were recorded by self-report. M provided significantly higher total energy and carbohydrate intakes than B. Breakfast and snacks both provided more energy in M. Calories obtained from fat were excessive in both settings. Calcium and vitamin D were below recommendations in B but not in M. Fiber, magnesium, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E intake fell below recommended values in both settings. M provided significantly greater quantities of magnesium and vitamins D and E. Both feeding options were far from optimal in satisfying current scientifically based recommendations for active adolescents.

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David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson

Grove, UT) as described in a recent study ( Nieman et al., 2018b ). The supplement ingredients (US Patent 9,839,624) included the following (in four capsules) and provided 658 mg of total monomeric flavonoids: 200-mg vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate), wild bilberry fruit extract with 128-mg anthocyanins

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Ellen F. Binder

This pilot study evaluated (a) the feasibility of a group exercise program in an institutionalized population with dementia; (b) the effects of such a program on physical performance measures; and (c) the potential additional effects of vitamin D supplementation on gait and muscle strength. Nursing home residents (N = 25) with chronic dementia and mobility impairments attended a thrice weekly exercise class for 8 weeks. They were randomly assigned to receive either a vitamin D supplement or no supplement throughout the program. Between-group differences in the effectiveness of the exercise intervention were analyzed. Pre-to-post changes were also assessed for both groups combined. In postexercise comparisons of both groups, knee extensor torque at 0°/sec declined by 18.6% while performance of 1-RM for hip extension increased by 16.1%. Balance also improved. Although vitamin D levels increased significantly in the supplement group, the two groups did not differ in their response to the exercise intervention.

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Robert A. Niekamp and Janine T. Baer

The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary adequacy of 12 collegiate cross-country runners during a competitive season. Four-day diet records were collected twice during the season and analyzed for total daily energy, macronutrients, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, iron, magnesium, zinc, and calcium. Mean energy intake (3,248 ± 590 kcal) was not significantly different from estimated mean energy expenditure (3,439 ± 244 kcal). Week 8 mean prealbumin levels were within normal limits (26.8 ± 2.8 mg/dl). Mean daily CHO intake was 497 ± 134 g/day (61.2%). Three to four hours prior to competition a pre-race meal was consumed; it contained 82 ± 47 g CHO. Posteompetition CHO intake was delayed an average 2.5 hr; at that time approximately 2.6 ± 0.69 g CHO/kg body weight was consumed. The athletes appeared to demonstrate dietary adequacy with the exception of timing of posteompetition carbohydrate consumption.

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Izabella A. Ludwa, Bareket Falk, Matthew Yao, Lauren Corbett and Panagiota Klentrou

This pilot study compared bone speed of sound (SOS), bone turnover and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) between 20 Caucasian, postmenarcheal, adolescent synchronized swimmers (SS) and 20 aged- and maturity-matched nonswimmers (NS). Daily dietary intake and physical activity levels were also assessed. Bone SOS was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Blood samples were analyzed for osteocalcin, cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTx), IGF-I and 25-OH vitamin D. Although no differences in bone SOS or turnover markers were observed between groups, the lower IGF-1 and vitamin D intake found in synchronized swimmers, in combination with their higher strenuous activity levels, should be further explored.

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Paula J. Ziegler, Judith A. Nelson and Satya S. Jonnalagadda

This study assessed the nutrient intake, body composition and biochemical indices of National Figure Skating Championship competitors. Four-day diet records, fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were obtained 2 months after the National Championships from 41 figure skaters 11-18 years of age. Energy, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber and cholesterol intake were significantly lower compared to the NHANES III averages for adolescents in the U.S. In general, the mean intakes for most vitamins except vitamin D and E were above the recommended intake. But the athletes had lower intakes of vitamin E and B12, and higher intakes of vitamin C, and thiamin (females only) compared with NHANES III. The mean intakes of magnesium, zinc, and iodine by the male skaters were below the recommended levels, as were the mean intakes of calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc by the female skaters. Also, the number of servings from vegetable, fruit, dairy, and meat groups were below the recommended levels. Biochemical indices of nutritional status were within normal limits for all skaters. But plasma electrolyte concentrations were indicative of potential dehydration status. The results suggest there is a need to develop dietary intervention and educational programs targeted at promoting optimal nutrient and fluid intakes by these athletes to maintain performance and improve long-term health status.

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Nancy Clark

Some of the nutritional concerns of female athletes are highlighted in this case study of a 20-year-old woman who wants to lose 16% of her body weight to qualify for the position of coxswain on a national crew team. These concerns include adequacy of vitamin, mineral, protein, and carbohydrate intake as well as amenorrhea and pathogenic eating behaviors.

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Mitchell M. Kanter and Melvin H. Williams

Three nutritional products that have very different mechanisms of action are antioxidant vitamins, carnitine, and choline. Antioxidant vitamins do not appear to have a direct effect on physical performance in well-fed people but have been touted for their ability to detoxify potentially damaging free radicals produced during exercise. Carnitine purportedly enhances lipid oxidation, increases VO2max, and decreases plasma lactate accumulation during exercise. However, studies of carnitine do not generally support its use for ergogenic purposes. Choline supplements have been advocated as a means of preventing the decline in acetylcholine production purported to occur during exercise; this decline may reduce the transmission of contraction-generating impulses across the skeletal muscle, an effect that could impair one’s ability to perform muscular work. However, there are no definitive studies in humans that justify choline supplementation. Much of the scientific data regarding the aforementioned nutrients are equivocal and contradictory. Their potential efficacy for improving physical performance remains largely theoretical.

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Robert R. Jenkins

Elemental and gaseous oxygen presents a conundrum in that it is simultaneously essential for and potentially destructive to human life. Traditionally the ability to consume large volumes of oxygen has been assumed to be totally beneficial to the organism. In the past 10 years it has become clear that oxygen radicals are generated even during normal resting metabolism Nevertheless, such radicals are usually of no appreciable threat since a wide array of protective biochemical systems exist. However, under certain circumstances aerobic exercise may increase free radical production to a level that overwhelms those defenses. A broad array of nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, p-carotene, and so forth are known to suppress such radical events. This paper reviews the status of our knowledge relative to the potential benefits of nutritional modification in augmenting the organism's normal defense against harmful radical chemistry.