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Luis F. Gómez, Olga L. Sarmiento, Diego I. Lucumí, Gladys Espinosa, Roberto Forero and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Utilitarian physical activity confers health benefits, but little is known about experiences in developing countries. The objective was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with walking and bicycling for transport in adults from Bogotá.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study including 1464 adults age 18 to 29 y during the year 2002.

Results:

16.7% reported bicycling for at least 10 min during the last week and 71.7% reported walking for at least 90 min during the last week. Bicycling was more likely among adults living in Tunjuelito (flat terrain), who use the “ciclovía” (car-roads for recreational bicycling on holidays/Sundays) or reporting physical activity during leisure-time and less likely among women, or adults with college education. Walking was more likely among adults reporting physical activity during leisure time and less likely among housewives/househusbands or those living in Tunjuelito.

Conclusion:

Programs that promote walking or bicycling in Bogotá should consider differences in individual and environmental factors.

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Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Jiewen Hua and Christine Le Scanff

Purpose:

The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations.

Methods:

Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days’ rest.

Results:

Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p > .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.

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Mikael Fogelholm, Inkeri Ruokonen, Juha T. Laakso, Timo Vuorimaa and Jaakko-Juhani Himberg

By means of a 5-week vitamin B-complex .supplementation, associations between indices of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, status (activation coefficients [AC] for erythrocyte transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartate aminotransferase) and exercise-induced blood lactate concentration were studied. Subjects, 42 physically active college students (18–32 yrs), were randomized into vitamin (n=22) and placebo (n=20) groups. Before the supplementation there were no differences in ACs or basal enzyme activities between the groups. The ACs were relatively high, suggesting marginal vitamin status. In the vitamin group, all three ACs were lower (p<0.0001) after supplementation: transketolase decreased from l. 16 (1.14–1.18) (mean and 95% confidence interval) to 1.08 (1.06–1.10); glutathione reductase decreased from 1.33 (1.28–1.39) to 1 .I4 (1.1 1–1.17); and aspartate aminotransferase decreased from 2.04 (1.94–2.14) to 1.73 (1.67–1.80). No changes were found after placebo. Despite improved indices of vitamin status, supplementation did not affect exercise-induced blood lactate concentration. Hence no association was found between ACs and blood lactate. It seems that marginally high ACs do not necessarily predict altered lactate metabolism.

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Tarik Ozmen, Mert Aydogmus, Hanife Dogan, Derya Acar, Tuba Zoroglu and Mark Willems

Context:

Kinesio taping (KT) is a taping technique extensively used in rehabilitation of sports injuries; however, the effect of KT on delayed-onset muscle soreness is not entirely clear.

Objectives:

To investigate the effect of kinesio tape on the quadriceps femoris on muscle pain, flexibility, and sprint performance after squat exercise.

Design:

Crossover study.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

19 female university students (age 21.0 ± 1.2 y, weight 53.0 ± 4.6 kg, height 164 ± 4 cm).

Main Outcome Measures:

Pressure-pain threshold for quadriceps femoris was recorded using pressure algometry. Quadriceps femoris flexibility was measured as the range of motion of knee flexion with a stainless steel goniometer. Sprint-speed measurements were conducted using photocells placed at 0 and 20 m. All participants completed both conditions (KT application and no KT application) after a 1-wk washout period. Measurements were taken at baseline and 48 h postexercise. For the KT condition, KT was applied immediately before the exercise protocol and remained on the skin for 48 h.

Results:

Squat exercise reduced flexibility and increased pain and sprint time compared with baseline. KT application resulted in similar sprint time and muscle pain as the no-KT condition but maintained flexibility compared with baseline.

Conclusions:

KT application immediately before squat exercise has no effect on muscle pain and short sprint performance but maintains muscle flexibility at 2 days of recovery.

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Frances O’Callaghan, Michael O’Callaghan, Gail Williams, William Bor and Jake Najman

Background:

Studies involving animals and older adults suggest that physical activity (PA) might lead to improved cognitive ability in general, and enhanced intelligence scores (IQ) in particular. However, there are few studies involving young persons and none controlling for the possibility that those with better cognitive skills are more likely to engage in PA.

Methods:

Data are from the Mater–University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. We measured IQ at the 14-year follow-up and IQ and PA at 21 years. Mean IQ scores are presented at the 21-year follow-up adjusted for IQ at 14 years, and PA and other variables.

Results:

Measures of vigorous exercise, less vigorous exercise, walking, and vigorous activity apart from exercise, produced inconsistent results. Increased levels of less vigorous exercise were associated with higher IQ, but neither higher levels of vigorous exercise nor walking were associated with IQ. For vigorous activity at work or in the home, the associations are curvilinear, with more and less activity both associated with lower IQ.

Conclusions:

While there is an association between some indicators of PA and IQ, there was no consistent evidence that higher PA levels might lead to increased IQ scores.

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy and Pamela J. Bryden

of research assessing sensitivity to ESC in young adults (see Rosenbaum et al., 2012 for a review), literature examining the developmental trajectory is not as prolific (see Wunsch, Henning, Aschersleben, & Weigelt, 2013 for a review). Studies have implemented Rosenbaum et al.’s ( 1990 ) bar

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Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny and Eadric Bressel

different between land and water in older adults. We do know that young adults produce greater amounts of mechanical power when performing jumping movements in water. 28 It is reasonable to expect similar results in older adults performing jumps in water versus on land. Therefore, this study aimed to

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Grace C. Bellinger, Kristen A. Pickett and Andrea H. Mason

conditions. The participants’ ability to anticipate whole-body positions supports the idea that motor planning involves predetermined goal postures of the entire body ( Rosenbaum, Meulenbroek, Vaughan, & Jansen, 2001 ). Therefore, Rosenbaum et al. ( 2001 ) demonstrated that motor planning in young adults can

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Anthony C. Santago II, Meghan E. Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J. Tuohy, Gary G. Poehling, Michael T. Freehill and Katherine R. Saul

have primarily emphasized occupational and ergonomic considerations in young adults rather than ADLs in at-risk groups. Studies quantifying strength requirements in occupational tasks, 11 , 12 such as automotive assembly work, 11 predominantly used young and middle-aged participants. One

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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang and Ing-Shiou Hwang

-Robert, Temprado, & Berton, 2011 ). For a static force task with visual feedback, older adults exhibit greater force fluctuations with less complexity than do young adults ( Challis, 2006 ; Kennedy & Christou, 2011 ) due to ineffective use of visual information for force gradation ( Chen, Lin, Lin, Hu, & Hwang