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Denise Azar, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon and Verity Cleland

Background:

A number of factors have been identified as important correlates of physical activity (PA) among young women. Young women at risk of depression have a greater likelihood of being physically inactive and it is unknown whether correlates differ for women at risk and not at risk of depression.

Methods:

A sample of 451 women aged 18 to 35 years self-reported leisure-time PA, enjoyment of and self-efficacy for walking and vigorous PA, barriers, social support, access to sporting/leisure facilities, and access to sporting equipment in the home. Depression risk was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (cut point ≥5). Logistic regression analyses examined differences in PA correlates among women at risk and not at risk of depression.

Results:

Self-efficacy for vigorous PA was statistically different between groups in predicting odds for meeting PA recommendations but odds ratios were similar across groups. No other significant interactions between correlates and depressive symptoms were identified.

Conclusions:

The findings suggest few differences in the individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of PA among young women who are and are not at risk of depression. Further research is needed to confirm the existence of any PA correlates specific to this high-risk target group.

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Kim Jose and Emily Hansen

Background:

Leisure-time physical activity is a term used by physical activity researchers to describe physical activity undertaken during nonwork time. In this study we explore how young people speak about physical activity in relation to leisure.

Methods:

Eight focus groups and one group interview were conducted with 50 participants aged 16−26 years. Participants included males and females, rural and urban dwellers, and a mixture of active/inactive young people. Focus group transcripts underwent an iterative thematic analysis.

Results:

Participants found it difficult to recognize leisure time activities in their day to day lives and only rarely mentioned their physical activity involvement when asked about leisure time activities. When discussing physical activity study participants commonly focused on high intensity physical activity such as sport and gym use. Three major themes relating to leisure and physical activity were identified: the meanings ascribed to physical activity, the experience of physical activity, and routines of participation.

Conclusion:

These findings suggest that the relationship between physical activity and leisure is complex and the term leisure with its associated concepts of satisfaction, relaxation and pleasure may not accurately reflect the way young people view their participation in physical activity.

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Sasha A. Fleary, Robin Mehl and Claudio Nigg

Background: Health behaviors in childhood and adolescence are implicated in health behaviors and chronic disease risk in adulthood for the majority of the US population. However, little is known about these relationships in Hawaiian youth. This study investigated the extent to which childhood physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption behaviors predicted later behaviors across a 10-year period in Hawaiian youth. Methods: Three cohorts of fourth- to sixth-grade students who participated in an elementary after-school program (Fun 5) provided baseline data (Y1—data collected between 2003 and 2007), 5-year (Y5—data collected between 2008 and 2012), and 10-year (Y10—data collected between 2013 and 2017) follow-up surveys. Demographic, PA, and fruit and vegetable consumption measures were completed at all 3 time points. Bivariate and multiple regressions were computed in 2018. Results: Y1 and Y5 behavior predicted PA in young adulthood. For fruit and vegetable consumption, Y1 behavior predicted Y5 behavior but not Y10 behavior, and Y5 behavior predicted Y10 behaviors. Conclusions: Similar to mainland US youth, it is important to address PA and nutrition early in the life span for Hawaiian youth to increase long-term preventive health behaviors and reduce long-term chronic disease risk.

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Alex C. Garn, Birgitta L. Baker, Emily K. Beasley and Melinda A. Solmon

Background:

Traditional videogames contribute to sedentary behaviors; in contrast, exergaming is a relatively new concept that uses videogames to promote exercise during game play. Nintendo Wii Fit is a commercially popular exergaming platform geared toward improving fitness, however, limited empirical evidence related to the physical and mental benefits of the Wii Fit platform currently exist. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate possible physical and motivational benefits of Nintendo Wii Fit.

Methods:

A repeated measures design was used with 30 college-aged students to explore physical activity, enjoyment, and future intentions of physical activity associated with Wii Fit exergames.

Results:

Data supported the efficacy of Wii Fit Basic Run to consistently produce moderate to vigorous physical activity across participants. Future intentions were higher for exergaming compared with generic exercise and obese individuals enjoyed exergaming more than generic physical activity.

Conclusions:

The Basic Run Wii Fit game provided opportunities for accumulating moderate to vigorous physical activity that provided motivational benefits to these participants, especially those classified as obese. Future research should examine the ability of Wii Fit exergames to produce physical activity and motivation over time.

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Frances O’Callaghan, Michael O’Callaghan, Gail Williams, William Bor and Jake Najman

Background:

Studies involving animals and older adults suggest that physical activity (PA) might lead to improved cognitive ability in general, and enhanced intelligence scores (IQ) in particular. However, there are few studies involving young persons and none controlling for the possibility that those with better cognitive skills are more likely to engage in PA.

Methods:

Data are from the Mater–University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. We measured IQ at the 14-year follow-up and IQ and PA at 21 years. Mean IQ scores are presented at the 21-year follow-up adjusted for IQ at 14 years, and PA and other variables.

Results:

Measures of vigorous exercise, less vigorous exercise, walking, and vigorous activity apart from exercise, produced inconsistent results. Increased levels of less vigorous exercise were associated with higher IQ, but neither higher levels of vigorous exercise nor walking were associated with IQ. For vigorous activity at work or in the home, the associations are curvilinear, with more and less activity both associated with lower IQ.

Conclusions:

While there is an association between some indicators of PA and IQ, there was no consistent evidence that higher PA levels might lead to increased IQ scores.

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Sara M. Scharoun, David A. Gonzalez, Eric A. Roy and Pamela J. Bryden

of research assessing sensitivity to ESC in young adults (see Rosenbaum et al., 2012 for a review), literature examining the developmental trajectory is not as prolific (see Wunsch, Henning, Aschersleben, & Weigelt, 2013 for a review). Studies have implemented Rosenbaum et al.’s ( 1990 ) bar

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Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny and Eadric Bressel

different between land and water in older adults. We do know that young adults produce greater amounts of mechanical power when performing jumping movements in water. 28 It is reasonable to expect similar results in older adults performing jumps in water versus on land. Therefore, this study aimed to

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Grace C. Bellinger, Kristen A. Pickett and Andrea H. Mason

conditions. The participants’ ability to anticipate whole-body positions supports the idea that motor planning involves predetermined goal postures of the entire body ( Rosenbaum, Meulenbroek, Vaughan, & Jansen, 2001 ). Therefore, Rosenbaum et al. ( 2001 ) demonstrated that motor planning in young adults can

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Anthony C. Santago II, Meghan E. Vidt, Xiaotong Li, Christopher J. Tuohy, Gary G. Poehling, Michael T. Freehill and Katherine R. Saul

have primarily emphasized occupational and ergonomic considerations in young adults rather than ADLs in at-risk groups. Studies quantifying strength requirements in occupational tasks, 11 , 12 such as automotive assembly work, 11 predominantly used young and middle-aged participants. One

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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang and Ing-Shiou Hwang

-Robert, Temprado, & Berton, 2011 ). For a static force task with visual feedback, older adults exhibit greater force fluctuations with less complexity than do young adults ( Challis, 2006 ; Kennedy & Christou, 2011 ) due to ineffective use of visual information for force gradation ( Chen, Lin, Lin, Hu, & Hwang