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Cédric Roure and Denis Pasco

students’ motivation could be increased through SI development ( Renninger & Hidi, 2016 ). Defined in the physical education (PE) context as “the appealing effect of the characteristics of an activity on an individual” ( Chen, Ennis, Martin, & Sun, 2006 , p. 3), SI has been conceptualized as a

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David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist.

Methods:

We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs.

Results:

Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%).

Conclusions:

Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.

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Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Dario Novak and Stephen Silverman

) conducted the last systematic analysis of research on teaching in physical education (RT-PE). In their paper, they identified, coded, and categorized articles from 1980 to 1994. Although Silverman and Skonie’s ( 1997 ) insights were extremely valuable, the field has matured greatly over the past 20+ years

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Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang

’ perceptions of and responses to a variety of concept-based curricula. These intervention studies focused on the efficacy of concept-based approaches to physical education curricula, including the Movement Education curriculum; the Sport for Peace curriculum; the Science, PE and Me! curriculum; and the

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Judith J. Prochaska, James F. Sallis, Donald J. Slymen and Thomas L. McKenzie

One mission of physical education (PE) is the promotion of enjoyable physical activity participation. PE enjoyment of 414 elementary school students (51% male, 77% Caucasian) was examined in a 3-year prospective study. Analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations, PE enjoyment decreased significantly from the fourth to sixth grade (p < .001) and was lower among girls (p < .001) and students not in organized sports (p < .005). Ethnicity and body mass index were not significant predictors of PE enjoyment. Girls, older children, and those not on sports teams are especially dependent on PE as the setting for accruing health-related physical activity, and strategies are needed to enhance their PE enjoyment.

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Xiaofen Deng Keating, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam, Rulan Shangguan and Li Chen

This study aimed to examine changes in physical education (PE) programs nation-wide from 2006 to 2010 by analyzing the data reported in the Shape of the Nation published by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Means and standard deviations for numeric variables in the reports were computed. For categorical variables, percentages were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The data from this study indicate a significant change in elementary PE as more states have mandated elementary PE and licensed elementary PE teachers. Significant increases in required PE units for high school graduation were also noted, indicating a positive change toward enhancing high school PE. However, the percentages of states with funding for professional development and required PE coordinator decreased significantly, suggesting that more work needs to be done if school PE is to provide the help and support requested by public health agencies.

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Yang Liu and Senlin Chen

physical education (PE). However, students’ knowledge deficiency about physical activity, fitness, or energy balance seems a common issue across all school levels ( Chen & Nam, 2017 ; Keating, Harrison, et al., 2009 ), in addition to underachievement in multiple learning areas ( Hastie, 2017 ). The latest

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

physical education (PE). The physically literate individuals are expected to demonstrate the “ability to move with competence and confidence in a wide variety of physical activities in multiple environments that benefit the healthy development of the whole person” ( SHAPE America, 2014 ). To improve K-12

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Russell Jago, Robert G. McMurray, Stanley Bassin, Laura Pyle, Steve Bruecker, John M. Jakicic, Esther Moe, Tinker Murray and Stella L. Volpe

Two pilot studies were conducted to examine whether 6th grade students can achieve moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from 1) activity-based physical education (AB-PE) with 585 participants and 2) a curricular-based (CB-PE) program with 1,544 participants and randomly sampled heart rates during lessons. AB-PE participants spent between 54–66% with a heart rate >140 bpm. CB-PE participants spent between 49–58% with a heart rate >140 bpm. Girls’ mean heart rate was 3.7 bpm lower than the boys. PE can be readily modified so that students spend more than 50% of time in MVPA.

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Katherine Bevans, Leslie-Anne Fitzpatrick, Betty Sanchez and Christopher B. Forrest

This study was conducted to identify student characteristics and instructional factors that impact student engagement in physical education (PE). Data were derived from the systematic observation of 124 sessions taught by 31 physical educators and the administration of health and PE engagement questionnaires to 2,018 students in grades 5-8. Physical activity was directly affected by student engagement and perceived competence in PE and indirectly affected by students’ body image through its association with PE engagement. Multilevel analyses revealed that the proportion of class time devoted to game play was negatively associated with student engagement in PE. Although less frequently used during PE sessions, skill practice was positively associated with student engagement and inactive instruction was negatively associated with student engagement. These effects were particularly pronounced among students with poor competence beliefs. Implications for PE instructional practice and future research are presented.