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Adam Love and Seungmo Kim

involve activities that are not formally required. Second, although the behaviors may seem minor, the cumulative effect of such behaviors can have a profound impact on organizational effectiveness. In the context of sport, for example, a veteran pitcher on a baseball team may share pitching secrets

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Hebe Schaillée, Ramón Spaaij, Ruth Jeanes and Marc Theeboom

Knowledge translation has emerged as an important area of research activity to enhance the fit between research-based knowledge and its application in policy and practice ( Greenhalgh & Wieringa, 2011 ). National competitive research funding schemes increasingly demand that applicants demonstrate

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Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen

women ( Epstein, 2016 ), and in perhaps the most male dominated of all football-related activities, fantasy football, female participation has grown to 14.2 million or 38% of the total population ( Fantasy Sports Trade Association [FSTA], 2017 ). This growth is intriguing, as previous researchers have

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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham

the current study was to examine the online thoughts and opinions that resulted from #BodyIssue on Instagram. The Instagram posting activity of ESPN and espnW as it pertained to the promotion of the featured athletes and the Instagram accounts of the athletes featured in the 2016 Body Issue were

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu

management performance of sport organizations, environmental activities in sport stakeholder relationships, and environmental tracking of event operations, among others ( Mallen, 2017 ; McCullough, Pfahl, & Nguyen, 2016 ). Meanwhile, a number of scholars point out that to advance the knowledge of sport and

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James Du, Heather Kennedy, Jeffrey D. James and Daniel C. Funk

, cycling, triathlon, and adventure obstacle courses, requiring moderate to vigorous intensity of physical exertion ( Funk, Jordan, Ridinger, & Kaplanidou, 2011 ). Although individuals can engage in physical activity outside of an organized event structure at minimal to no cost, one’s reasons for paying

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

have been provided that office to achieve such a mission. It should be noted that these employment activities are similar to those practiced by many other third-party regulators such as those involved with banking; stock exchange (e.g., NASDAQ and New York Stock Exchange); religion; politics; law (e

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Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel and Adam Karg

are enhanced by our findings, with the role of positioning and importance of organizational planning presenting key activities. Critically, brand traits and recall can be manipulated by managers over time, with strategies and actions around branding a team’s history, culture, key on- and off

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Wendy White Morrow and P. Chelladurai

A successful national sport organization, Synchro Canada, was described in terms of three structural characteristics (formalization, centralization, and complexity) and five processes (activities to ensure resources, work flow, control, identification, and homeostatic activities) based on evidence from documents and, to a limited extent, from interviews. Eighty-five subjects from four constituent groups (administrators, judges, coaches, and athletes) responded to a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions regarding the contributions of the selected organizational characteristics to Synchro Canada's overall effectiveness. The analyses showed that the organization's structures and processes were consistent with the literature in organization theory. From an overall perspective, the respondents perceived the structural and process characteristics as contributing to overall effectiveness. However, the coaches as a subgroup viewed the dimensions of activities to ensure resources, control activities, and centralization as detracting from effectiveness.

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Tim Berrett and Trevor Slack

Sport sponsorship is frequently described as a strategic activity, and thus, it is influenced by both competitive and institutional forces. Using a sample of 28 Canadian companies, this study explores the influence of competitive and institutional pressures on those individuals who make decisions about their company's sport sponsorship initiatives. The results show that the sponsorship activities of rival companies were influential in a company's sponsorship choices. This was particularly the case in highly concentrated industries. We also show some evidence of a first-mover advantage in sponsorship decision-making but found preemptive strategies to yield little competitive advantage. In addition to these pressures from the competitive environment, institutional pressures from companies in the same geographic area, in the form of mimetic activity, in the form of involvement in social networks, and through the occupational training of the decision makers—all played a role in the choices made about what activities to sponsor.