Objectives for this study were, first, to describe individual differences in risk taking among scuba divers. Differences were examined on personality dimensions and psycho-affective variables, including positive and negative affect, as well as alexithymia. In addition, the study examined contributors to two types of behavior associated with scuba diving—deliberate risk taking and controlled participation in a high-risk sport (non-risk-taking). A cross-sectional design was used, and 131 participants were assessed on extraversion-neuroticism, affectivity, and alexithymia. The broad dimensions of personality and affectivity explained risk taking among divers. Alexithymia differentially predicted two types of risktaking behavior (direct or short-term and indirect or long-term) and was associated significantly with short-term risk-taking behavior.
Agnès Bonnet, Vincent Bréjard and Jean-Louis Pedinielli
Scott E. Kerick, Seppo E. Iso-Ahola and Bradley D. Hatfield
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which perceptions of psychological momentum (PM) are associated with affect and whether affective responses accounted for a significant proportion of target shooting performance variance. This purpose was examined within the framework of the multidimensional model of momentum. Precipitating PM events were manipulated by providing false performance feedback to isolate psychological effects on performance. EEG data were obtained during real-time performance, and frontal asymmetry was analyzed to assess the viability of the approach-withdrawal motivational system as an underlying mechanism to explain the PM-performance relationship. Although cognitive perceptions of PM were reliably altered by the feedback in the hypothesized direction, affective responses, frontal asymmetry, and shooting performance did not significantly differ among feedback conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that cognitive PM perceptions may evolve in response to precipitating events independently from affective, electrophysiological, and performance effects in novice participants.
Dave W. Robinson and Bruce L. Howe
The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the nature and extent of appraisal variable/affect relationships in a youth sport achievement setting, (b) assess gender differences in these relationships, and (c) evaluate the applicability of Werner's (1985) attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion to the domain of youth sport. After participating in a 6-week competitive team sport program, subjects (N=746) were measured on (a) perceived performance, (b) causal attributions and dimensionality, and (c) general, self-related, and other-related affective reactions to performance outcome. Canonical correlation and regression analyses revealed significant appraisal variable/affect relationships, which were similar across the gender groups. Weiner's model received partial support but there were inconsistencies in terms of the model's overall fit. The need for a more elaborate sport-specific model of the antecedents of affect (vis-à-vis Vallerand, 1987) is stressed, and recommendations for future research are briefly outlined.
Charlotte C. Benjamin, Alex Rowlands and Gaynor Parfitt
Past studies have shown the patterning of affective responses during a graded exercise test (GXT) in adult and male adolescent populations, but none have explored the patterns in adolescent girls or younger children. This study explored the patterning of affective responses during a GXT in adolescents and younger children. Forty-nine children (21 male and 28 female) aged between 8–14 years (10.8 ± 1.8 years) completed a GXT. Ventilatory threshold (VT) was identified. At the end of each incremental step, participants reported affective valence. Results revealed that affective valence assessed by the Feeling Scale (FS) significantly declined from the onset of exercise until the point of VT in the younger children, but remained relatively stable in the adolescents. Exercise above the VT brought about significant declines in affective valence regardless of age or sex, but the decrease was significantly greater in adolescents. Results suggest it may be preferable to prescribe lower exercise intensities (below VT) for children, compared with adolescents, to ensure a positive affective response.
Daniel M. Landers, Shawn M. Arent and Rafer S. Lutz
Recent research has demonstrated transient affective changes and impairment of short-term memory in college wrestlers as a result of rapid weight loss (RWL) of at least 5% body weight prior to competition. This study examined the effects of RWL on cognition and affect in high school wrestlers. Wrestlers were considered to be engaging in RWL if they were losing over 5% of body weight (n = 14). Those losing less than 1% of body weight (n = 14) were considered maintainers and served as the control group. Both groups were given a battery of tests assessing cognitive performance (Trail Making Tests A & B, Stroop color-word test, Wechsler digit span, and choice reaction/movement time) and affective state (PANAS) at normal weight (5 to 10 days prior to competition) and again 8 to 12 hours prior to weigh-in. Results indicated an average loss of 4.68 kg in the RWL group and 0.29 kg in the control group. A group-by-time MANOVA and univariate follow-up tests indicated a significant group-by-time interaction for positive affect, p < .014, with the RWL wrestlers having less positive affect than the control group just prior to weigh-in. However, none of the cognitive performance tests demonstrated significant differential changes for RWL vs. control groups, p > .10. Given the control for competition effects in the present study, results suggest there are affective disturbances, but not cognitive impairments, associated with RWL of at least 5% body weight in high school wrestlers.
David M. Williams, Shira Dunsiger, Jessica A. Emerson, Chad J. Gwaltney, Peter M. Monti and Robert Miranda Jr.
Affective response to exercise may mediate the effects of self-paced exercise on exercise adherence. Fiftynine low-active (exercise <60 min/week), overweight (body mass index: 25.0–39.9) adults (ages 18–65) were randomly assigned to self-paced (but not to exceed 76% maximum heart rate) or prescribed moderate intensity exercise (64–76% maximum heart rate) in the context of otherwise identical 6-month print-based exercise promotion programs. Frequency and duration of exercise sessions and affective responses (good/bad) to exercise were assessed via ecological momentary assessment throughout the 6-month program. A regression-based mediation model was used to estimate (a) effects of experimental condition on affective response to exercise (path a = 0.20, SE = 0.28, f 2 = 0.02); (b) effects of affective response on duration/latency of the next exercise session (path b = 0.47, SE = 0.25, f 2 = 0.04); and (c) indirect effects of experimental condition on exercise outcomes via affective response (path ab = 0.11, SE = 0.06, f 2 = 0.10). Results provide modest preliminary support for a mediational pathway linking self-paced exercise, affective response, and exercise adherence.
Glenn V. Ostir, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Suzanne Leveille, Stefano Volpato and Jack M. Guralnik
This study investigated whether positive or negative affect has an independent association with exercise self-efficacy. Participants (N = 324) age 75-85 were classified as high or at-risk performers, and three exercise-self-efficacy items (scored 1-10) were assessed. For at-risk performers, positive affect was significantly associated with confidence in the ability to perform strength and flexibility (b = 0.83, SE = 0.23, p = .001) and aerobic exercise (b = 0.59, SE = 0.28, p = .04) and with the perception that exercise would not worsen preexisting symptoms (b = 0.73, SE = 0.24, p = .001). Among high performers, nonsignificant associations were found for positive and negative affect and exercise-self-efficacy. For at-risk performers, higher positive affect was associated with an increased odds ratio of 2.72 for scoring 10 on the muscle strength and flexibility item, 4.08 on the aerobic item, and 2.94 on the item assessing preexisting symptoms. The results suggest that improving at-risk older adults’ positive affect might increase their participation in exercise.
Scott W. Kelley and L. W. Turley
The Super Bowl television broadcast is the premier sports viewing spectacle each year. Although large sums of advertising dollars are spent on the production and placement of Super Bowl advertisements, little is known about the content of these advertisements and the level of affect associated with various aspects of the content of Super Bowl advertisements. This study explores the content of commercials shown during the 1996-2002 Super Bowls and uses USA Today Ad Meter scores as a dependent variable. Content analysis is used to analyze the data along with follow-up analyses investigating the relationships among advertising content and affect toward the advertisement. The findings suggest that higher levels of affect are associated with advertising goods rather than services in Super Bowl advertisements, and strategies include the following: using emotional appeals, avoiding straight announcements as a message format, including animals, and not making quality claims.
David M. Williams
The article reviews research relevant to a proposed conceptual model of exercise adherence that integrates the dual mode model and hedonic theory. Exercise intensity is posited to influence affective response to exercise via interoceptive (e.g., ventila-tory drive) and cognitive (e.g., perceived autonomy) pathways; affective response to exercise is posited to influence exercise adherence via anticipated affective response to future exercise. The potential for self-paced exercise to enhance exercise adherence is examined in the context of the proposed model and suggestions are given for future research. Further evidence in support of self-paced exercise could have implications for exercise prescription, especially among overweight, sedentary adults, who are most in need of interventions that enhance adherence to exercise programs.
Michael B. Johnson, William A. Edmonds, Gershon Tenenbaum and Akihito Kamata
A recently introduced probabilistic methodology (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) was implemented in the current study to ascertain the idiosyncratic Individual Affect-related Performance Zones (IAPZs) of four intercollegiate tennis players. The current study advances upon previous empirical works by its use of multiple performance levels, use of athletes’ introspective affective intensity, and recording multiple data points duringcompetition. Results present within- and between-player comparisons, and highlight the dynamic nature of competitive athletic events. A brief discussion regarding the implications of this methodology and the pursuant results for sport psychology consultants is also proffered. Being idiosyncratic in nature, the observations from this study are not intended to generalize across samples, but rather to introduce how knowledge of the systematic and dynamic linkage between an individual’s affect and his or her performance can be uncovered and possibly used with individual athletes to facilitate more consistently optimal performances.