This paper describes some of the ways in which popular culture may be a site of social resistance. The subculture of skateboarding is described as one form of popular culture that resists capitalist social relations, and the skateboarders’ particularly overt resistance to an amateur contest provides a framework for characterizing their daily and more covert behaviors of resistance. Although social resistance has the potential to change dominant social relations, it is often limited by contradictions and accommodations. In this case, the skateboarders’ sexist behavior is one of their significant contradictions. Finally, some implications of social resistance are addressed.
Jim McKay and Toby Miller
Although there are obvious American influences on Australian popular culture, the term “Americanization” is of limited help in explaining the elaborate form and content of Australian sport. The recent transformation from amateur to corporate sport in Australia has been determined by a complex array of internal and international social forces, including Australia’s polyethnic population, its semiperipheral status in the capitalist world system, its federal polity, and its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. Americanization is only one manifestation of the integration of amateur and professional sport into the media industries, advertising agencies, and multinational corporations of the world market. Investment in sport by American, British, New Zealand, Japanese, and Australian multinational companies is part of their strategy of promoting “good corporate citizenship,” which also is evident in art, cinema, dance, music, education, and the recent bicentennial festivities. It is suggested that the political economy of Australian sport can best be analyzed by concepts such as “post-Fordism,” the globalization of consumerism, and the cultural logic of late capitalism, all of which transcend the confines of the United States.
Julien Robineau, Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Xavier Bigard and Nicolas Babault
To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players.
Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period.
From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; –0.54 ± 0.35, moderate).
The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.
Michaela Gstöttner, Andreas Neher, Arne Scholtz, Martin Millonig, Sandra Lembert and Christian Raschner
The aim of this study was to evaluate balance abilities and electromyographic (EMG) latency times of the preferred and nonpreferred leg in soccer players. Whereas side differences between the two legs in force, kicking speed, and joint laxity have been demonstrated in athletes in previous studies, no data are so far available on balance differences. Low balance ability is generally associated with an increased risk of ligament injuries, and the detection of a possible asymmetry in balance is important because a bilateral difference may be a contributing factor to injury. Twenty-one amateur soccer players were tested. Two different balance test instruments were used: the Biodex Stability System and the Tetrax System. For the evaluation of muscle latency times, EMGs were recorded by means of the EquiTest system. None of the tests performed in this study revealed statistically significant differences in balance ability between the preferred and the nonpreferred leg. The investigations of balance function and muscle response in amateur soccer players did not reveal significant differences between the preferred and nonpreferred leg in the current study. However, a certain tendency to better balance in the nonpreferred leg was observed.
Susen M. MacMillan
In Canada, amateur athletes who receive government funding in support of their training are required to sign an agreement with the respective sport organization in order to qualify for the assistance. This illustrates how legal practices are increasingly being used in sport. It is important for participants in sport to understand what the legal elements of such practices are in order to identify those situations in which they have been applied properly, inaccurately , or inappropriately. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the content of the agreements signed by Canadian athletes and the procedures by which they are implemented. The result of this analysis is a list of issues that athletes and administrators may wish to address or improve in order to provide a more fair agreement between the parties.
This study tested the relationship between perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction among sport executives. It also investigated the relative importance of role characteristics and individual variables in the prediction of role satisfaction. Measures of perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction were obtained through content analysis of interviews with 60 executives involved in Quebec amateur sport federations. Demographic data were gathered by questionnaire. Results indicated positive correlations between perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction. As demonstrated by multiple regression analysis, the selected individual characteristics (age and marital status) were not predictive of role satisfaction. Use of competence, autonomy, role significance, and recognition were found to be the four major determinants of role satisfaction within the voluntary sport associations.
Oleg Kazennikov and Mario Wiesendanger
Music performance is based on demanding motor control with much practice from young age onward. We have chosen to investigate basic bimanual movements played by violin amateurs and professionals. We posed the question whether position and string changes, two frequent mechanisms, may influence the time interval bowing (right)-fingering (left) coordination. The objective was to measure bimanual coordination, i.e., with or without position changes and string changes. The tendency was that the bimanual coordination was statistically only slightly increased or even unchanged but not perceptible. We conclude that the coordination index is limited up to 100 ms intervals, without any erroneous perception. Although the mentioned position changes and string changes are movements with their timing, they are executed in parallel rather than in series with the bow-fingering coordination.
In the article by Davis P, Wittekind A, and Beneke R, “Amateur Boxing: Activity Profile of Winners and Losers,” in Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 8(1), pp. 84–91, the digit zero was inadvertently deleted from some of the figures in the tables. Table 1, Total punches, Round 1 winners should be 20.7 not 2.7, and Round 3 winners should be 20.3 not 2.3. Table 2, Air punches, Round 1 winners should be 10.1 not 1.1, and Round 3 losers should be 10.6 not 1.6. Table 2, Punches/min, Round 2 should be 20.2 not 2.2, and Round 1 losers should be 20.2 not 2.2. Table 4, 2-punch-combinations, Round 2 winners should be 10.4 not 1.4, and Round 3 winners should be 10.2 not 1.2. We apologize for the error.
Alison J. Doherty and Albert V. Carron
Understanding the experiences of volunteers in amateur sport organizations is critical to their effective management of these nonprofit organizations. The purpose of this study was to explore cohesion in volunteer sport executive committees. Members (n = 117) of sport executive committees or boards completed a questionnaire that assessed perceptions of cohesion, individual satisfaction, effort, intent to quit, committee effectiveness, and a variety of individual (gender, committee, role, tenure) and organizational (committee, size, gender composition, frequency and length of meetings) variables. Task cohesion was found to be stronger than social cohesion. Only committee size was found to be associated with perceptions of cohesiveness; members of smaller committees perceived less social cohesion than members of medium and larger committees. Task and social cohesion predicted volunteer satisfaction and perceived committee effectiveness, while volunteer effort and intent to remain with the committee were predicted by task cohesion. The results are discussed in terms of their implication for theory and practice.
M. Ann Hall and Bruce Kidd
Eva Dawes Spinks (1912–2009) was an outstanding Canadian high jumper in the 1930s. The present paper traces her early life, successful athletic career, and her decision in 1935 to join a group of athletes on a goodwill tour of the Soviet Union organized by the Workers’ Sports Association of Canada. Upon her return, Dawes was suspended by the Women’s Amateur Athletic Union of Canada. She retired from competition and became involved in the Canadian campaign to boycott the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Much later, Dawes adamantly denied any political involvement. The purpose of this paper is to examine and possibly explain the incongruity between the historical evidence and Dawes’s later denials. More broadly, it is a discussion about the relationship between history and individual memory.