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Frank Jacobs, Annelies Knoppers, Rene Diekstra and Marcin Sklad

A frequent critique of coach education courses is that they are designed by scholars with little input from coaches about what they think they need. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and content of a coach education course that was grounded in stakeholder needs. Dutch amateur football coaches felt ill-equipped to handle conflicts and confrontational behaviors by players and/or parents. Therefore a coach education course was created to help coaches develop tools they could use to improve their interpersonal skills. The tools were drawn from the teaching strategies of Forgatch and DeGarmo (1999) and Rational-Emotive Education (REE) (Knaus, 1974).

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Vincenzo Ricci and Levent Özçakar

Muscle injuries are very common in sports medicine, but involvement of the paraspinal muscles is relatively rare. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but diagnostic imaging modalities (ie, ultrasound and magnetic resonance) identify, in detail, the anatomical site and extension of the lesion helping the physician plan a specific rehabilitation program. Likewise, the authors present an unusual case of a amateur volleyball player who suffered injury of the paraspinal muscles after a session of manual therapy with deep massage. The authors also highlight the potential role of ultrasound imaging in detecting muscle injuries not only in the limbs but also at the level of paraspinal region for prompt management and return to play.

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Ciria Margarita Salazar C., Pedro Julian Flores Moreno, José Encarnación Del Río Valdivia, Lenin Tlamatini Barajas Pineda, Julio Alejandro Gómez Figueroa and Martha Patricia Pérez López

The purpose of this paper is to describe the profile of coaching and coach education in Mexico. Mexico currently plays a prevailing sport role at a Pan-American level. Five types of coaches exist in Mexico: professional, amateur, personal or private, schooling and plainspeople. Each one is defined by the scopes, knowledge and its application, and sporting results achieved. The development of Mexican coaches is based on a traditional training model. It is important that coach developers in Mexico observe the progresses of countries that have advanced in the development of academic improvement programs and coach development opportunities offered through institutes of higher education.

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J. R. Woodward

In this article the author examines sports guides that are dedicated to critiquing collegiate football players eligible for the annual National Football League amateur draft. An effort is made to assess whether the scouts in these guides describe collegiate players in ways that correspond with U.S. race logic as articulated by Coakley (1998). More specifically, the article focuses on the mental and physical descriptions of African American and White athletes by professional scouts. The results show that African American players are more likely to be described in physical terms (rather than mental terms) than are White players in the same positions.

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Becky Beal

This paper describes some of the ways in which popular culture may be a site of social resistance. The subculture of skateboarding is described as one form of popular culture that resists capitalist social relations, and the skateboarders’ particularly overt resistance to an amateur contest provides a framework for characterizing their daily and more covert behaviors of resistance. Although social resistance has the potential to change dominant social relations, it is often limited by contradictions and accommodations. In this case, the skateboarders’ sexist behavior is one of their significant contradictions. Finally, some implications of social resistance are addressed.

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Jim McKay and Toby Miller

Although there are obvious American influences on Australian popular culture, the term “Americanization” is of limited help in explaining the elaborate form and content of Australian sport. The recent transformation from amateur to corporate sport in Australia has been determined by a complex array of internal and international social forces, including Australia’s polyethnic population, its semiperipheral status in the capitalist world system, its federal polity, and its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. Americanization is only one manifestation of the integration of amateur and professional sport into the media industries, advertising agencies, and multinational corporations of the world market. Investment in sport by American, British, New Zealand, Japanese, and Australian multinational companies is part of their strategy of promoting “good corporate citizenship,” which also is evident in art, cinema, dance, music, education, and the recent bicentennial festivities. It is suggested that the political economy of Australian sport can best be analyzed by concepts such as “post-Fordism,” the globalization of consumerism, and the cultural logic of late capitalism, all of which transcend the confines of the United States.

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Michaela Gstöttner, Andreas Neher, Arne Scholtz, Martin Millonig, Sandra Lembert and Christian Raschner

The aim of this study was to evaluate balance abilities and electromyographic (EMG) latency times of the preferred and nonpreferred leg in soccer players. Whereas side differences between the two legs in force, kicking speed, and joint laxity have been demonstrated in athletes in previous studies, no data are so far available on balance differences. Low balance ability is generally associated with an increased risk of ligament injuries, and the detection of a possible asymmetry in balance is important because a bilateral difference may be a contributing factor to injury. Twenty-one amateur soccer players were tested. Two different balance test instruments were used: the Biodex Stability System and the Tetrax System. For the evaluation of muscle latency times, EMGs were recorded by means of the EquiTest system. None of the tests performed in this study revealed statistically significant differences in balance ability between the preferred and the nonpreferred leg. The investigations of balance function and muscle response in amateur soccer players did not reveal significant differences between the preferred and nonpreferred leg in the current study. However, a certain tendency to better balance in the nonpreferred leg was observed.

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Julien Robineau, Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Xavier Bigard and Nicolas Babault


To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players.


Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period.


From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; –0.54 ± 0.35, moderate).


The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.

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Geneviève Rail

This study tested the relationship between perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction among sport executives. It also investigated the relative importance of role characteristics and individual variables in the prediction of role satisfaction. Measures of perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction were obtained through content analysis of interviews with 60 executives involved in Quebec amateur sport federations. Demographic data were gathered by questionnaire. Results indicated positive correlations between perceived role characteristics and role satisfaction. As demonstrated by multiple regression analysis, the selected individual characteristics (age and marital status) were not predictive of role satisfaction. Use of competence, autonomy, role significance, and recognition were found to be the four major determinants of role satisfaction within the voluntary sport associations.

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Susen M. MacMillan

In Canada, amateur athletes who receive government funding in support of their training are required to sign an agreement with the respective sport organization in order to qualify for the assistance. This illustrates how legal practices are increasingly being used in sport. It is important for participants in sport to understand what the legal elements of such practices are in order to identify those situations in which they have been applied properly, inaccurately , or inappropriately. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the content of the agreements signed by Canadian athletes and the procedures by which they are implemented. The result of this analysis is a list of issues that athletes and administrators may wish to address or improve in order to provide a more fair agreement between the parties.