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Michael H. Stone, Kimberly Sanborn, Lucille L. Smith, Harold S. O'Bryant, Tommy Hoke, Alan C. Utter, Robert L. Johnson, Rhonda Boros, Joseph Hruby, Kyle C. Pierce, Margaret E. Stone and Brindley Garner

The purpose of this investigation was to study the efficacy of two dietary supplements on measures of body mass, body composition, and performance in 42 American football players. Group CM (n = 9) received creatine monohy-drate, Group P (n = 11) received calcium pyruvate. Group COM (n = 11) received a combination of calcium pyruvate (60%) and creatine (40%), and Group PL received a placebo. Tests were performed before (Tl) and after (T2) the 5-week supplementation period, during which the subjects continued their normal training schedules. Compared to P and PL. CM and COM showed significantly greater increases for body mass, lean body mass, 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press, combined 1 RM squat and bench press, and static vertical jump (SVJ) power output. Peak rate of force development for SVJ was significantly greater for CM compared to P and PL. Creatine and the combination supplement enhanced training adaptations associated with body mass/composition, maximum strength, and SVJ; however, pyruvate supplementation alone was ineffective.

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

external power output underlie successful performance in sports. Accordingly, regular assessment of aerobic and anaerobic power informs the overall training strategy of most of today’s elite athletes. Numerous groups have reported contemporary power data from elite athletes, particularly runners, cyclists

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Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James Hopker

can be accounted for via expired gases measured at the mouth. However, during high-intensity exercise (HIE) with a significant anaerobic energy contribution, V ˙ O 2 measured at the mouth cannot be used to estimate the total energy expenditure. Therefore, conventional measurement of GE during

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Philippe Hellard, Robin Pla, Ferran A. Rodríguez, David Simbana and David B. Pyne

100-m trials, swimming speeds have been markedly different (1.5–1.9 m·s −1 ), as have the reported metabolic profiles. For example, results for the aerobic–anaerobic contributions (expressed as percentage of total energy expenditure, % E tot ) have ranged between ∼33% to 67%, 2 ∼31% to 69%, 3 and

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

, and growth hormone. Men become larger, with both more absolute and more relative muscle mass and a lower percentage of body fat, and have superior muscle strength and power, as well as both anaerobic and aerobic production of energy. Normalization for fat-free mass (an approximation of skeletal

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Volker Scheer, Tanja I. Janssen, Solveig Vieluf and Hans-Christian Heitkamp

criteria as described elsewhere. 1 , 6 Ventilatory thresholds (VT), lactate thresholds, individual anaerobic thresholds (IAT), and running economy (RE) were determined as described in the literature. 1 , 6 , 12 Mechanical power was calculated from values obtained in the trail test and expressed as (in

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Richard Latzel, Olaf Hoos, Sebastian Stier, Sebastian Kaufmann, Volker Fresz, Dominik Reim and Ralph Beneke

anaerobic energy systems is unknown. Previously, assumptions on energy demand in basketball were drawn from observation of in-game activities, 6 time–motion analyses of basketball matches, 1 , 7 – 9 and indirect estimation of oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) by heart rate (HR) measurements 10 or direct measurement

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Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann

extrapolation of the linear relationship between the intensity and oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) during submaximal (35–90% VO 2 max) exercise and calculates the energy into aerobic and anaerobic portions. The 3-component method subdivides the anaerobic portion into lactic and alactic shares. 14 , 15 The anaerobic

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

require highly developed physical fitness components that include flexibility, anaerobic power, muscle strength, and endurance. Various training programs have been introduced for enhancing physical performance in TKD athletes ( Monks et al., 2017 ; Nikolaidis et al., 2015 ; Seo et al., 2015 ), and some

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Mariana R. Silva, Cristine L. Alberton, Caroline O. Braga and Stephanie S. Pinto

subsequent session, the participants performed an aquatic maximal incremental test to assess the HR corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (HR AT ). Finally, in the third and fourth sessions, the participants performed 2 experimental protocols in a counterbalanced order: resistance prior to (RA) or after