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Richard Latzel, Olaf Hoos, Sebastian Stier, Sebastian Kaufmann, Volker Fresz, Dominik Reim and Ralph Beneke

rest during the BEST, caloric equivalent, and body mass by using: W aer (kJ) = VO 2 (mL·kg −1 ) × caloric equivalent (J·mL −1 ) × body mass (kg) × 1000 −1 . Since measurement of the resting VO 2 before the BEST may be problematic due to sympathetic arousal, 14 the equivalent of VO 2 in a standing

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

Alternatively, 90 minutes is also considered optimal as this allows a complete sleep cycle (nonrapid eye movement [NREM] and rapid eye movement [REM]) to occur, reducing the effects of sleep inertia. 14 Sleep inertia is a temporary reduction in arousal and performance, which is associated with slow-wave sleep

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

: results from the United Kingdom Health and Lifestyle Survey . Psychol Aging . 2006 ; 21 ( 1 ): 62 – 73 . doi:10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.62 16594792 10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.62 21. Lambourne K , Tomporowski P . The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

alterations in mood and arousal. When carbohydrate is ingested close to exercise, there is the possibility of rebound hypoglycemia during the initial stages of exercise. Although the general results are mixed, the effect on performance has been largely refuted (reviewed by Jeukendrup and Killer 21 ). While

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Mayur K. Ranchordas, George King, Mitchell Russell, Anthony Lynn and Mark Russell

antagonism. More specifically, caffeine ingestion inhibits the effects of adenosine on neurotransmission in the brain thereby reducing the perception of effort, increasing arousal, and delaying fatigue ( Davis et al., 2003 ), all aspects that could have enhanced performance on the Yo-Yo IR1. It has

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

following exercise-induced dehydration: role of sports drink supplementation . 2013 ; 11 – 68 . 27. Lambourne K , Tomporowski P . The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis . Brain Res . 2010 ; 1341 : 12 – 24 . PubMed ID: 20381468 doi: 10

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

Paediatr . 1998 ; 87 ( 1 ): 28 – 31 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1998.tb01380.x 9510443 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1998.tb01380.x 17. Livingston , FR , Arens , R , Bailey , SL , Keens , TG , Sally Ward , LD . Hypercapnic arousal responses in Prader-Willi Syndrome . Chest . 1995 ; 108 ( 6 ): 1627

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

increased sympathetic nervous system arousal. However, these mechanisms require further research. Jamieson, J.P., Crum, A.J., Goyer, J.P., Marotta, M.E., & Akinola, M. (2018). Optimizing stress responses with reappraisal and mindset interventions: An integrated model. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 31 , 245

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

stimulation may increase temporary arousal, stimulating attention ( Coull, 1998 ). It might be that this temporary arousal benefits concentration, which is necessary for the digit span forward test. In this study, we were focused on the impact of a multi-component intervention, as previous research showed

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SeYun Park and Jennifer L. Etnier

.1123/jsep.19.3.249 10.1123/jsep.19.3.249 3. Lambourne K , Tomporowski P . The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis . Brain Res . 2010 ; 1341 : 12 – 24 . PubMed ID: 20381468 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.091 10.1016/j.brainres.2010