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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

alterations in mood and arousal. When carbohydrate is ingested close to exercise, there is the possibility of rebound hypoglycemia during the initial stages of exercise. Although the general results are mixed, the effect on performance has been largely refuted (reviewed by Jeukendrup and Killer 21 ). While

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Mayur K. Ranchordas, George King, Mitchell Russell, Anthony Lynn and Mark Russell

antagonism. More specifically, caffeine ingestion inhibits the effects of adenosine on neurotransmission in the brain thereby reducing the perception of effort, increasing arousal, and delaying fatigue ( Davis et al., 2003 ), all aspects that could have enhanced performance on the Yo-Yo IR1. It has

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

following exercise-induced dehydration: role of sports drink supplementation . 2013 ; 11 – 68 . 27. Lambourne K , Tomporowski P . The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis . Brain Res . 2010 ; 1341 : 12 – 24 . PubMed ID: 20381468 doi: 10

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

Paediatr . 1998 ; 87 ( 1 ): 28 – 31 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1998.tb01380.x 9510443 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1998.tb01380.x 17. Livingston , FR , Arens , R , Bailey , SL , Keens , TG , Sally Ward , LD . Hypercapnic arousal responses in Prader-Willi Syndrome . Chest . 1995 ; 108 ( 6 ): 1627

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

increased sympathetic nervous system arousal. However, these mechanisms require further research. Jamieson, J.P., Crum, A.J., Goyer, J.P., Marotta, M.E., & Akinola, M. (2018). Optimizing stress responses with reappraisal and mindset interventions: An integrated model. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 31 , 245

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Michael B. Johnson, William A. Edmonds, Akihito Kamata and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this article is to present the procedural steps used to derive a person’s Individual Affect-Related Performance Zones (IAPZs). An IAPZ is that range of affect (i.e., arousal and pleasure) within which an individual has a probability of performing at a particular level (e.g., optimal, moderate, or poor). This methodology has been used in a number of research studies but has yet to be operationalized in the literature. The purpose of this procedure is to facilitate training programs designed to improve human performance in any number of domains via idiosyncratic control over affect. The methodology described consists of eight steps: (a) collecting data, (b) categorizing affect and performance level, (c) converting the data, (d) performing logistical ordinal regressions, (e) creating IAPZ curves, (f) creating IAPZ profile charts, (g) plotting within competition states onto IAPZ profile charts, and (h) utilizing IAPZs to select, implement, and evaluate performance enhancement strategies.

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan, J. Robert Grove and Richard J. Lockwood

This paper presents the development and implementation of a psychological skills training program for blind athletes. The structure of the program was based on the personal accounts of successful athletes and the results of studies using sighted athletes. Skills designed to give insight to the body/mind relationship, raise or lower arousal levels, maintain motivation, prepare for competition, and improve problem-solving abilities were introduced to the athletes. Participants completed a self-assessment of psychological skills to determine the skill areas they had strengths in and therefore should take advantage of as well as those mental skill areas in which they could improve. A qualitative evaluation of the program is presented and recommendations for future programs are discussed. Overall, few changes were needed to accommodate for the athletes’ visual impairments.

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Ryan Sides, Graig Chow and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this study was to explore adaptation through the manipulation of perceived task difficulty and self-efficacy to challenge the concepts postulated by the two-perception probabilistic concept of the adaptation phenomenon (TPPCA) conceptual framework. Twenty-four randomized performers completed a handgrip and putting task, at three difficulty levels, to assess their self-efficacy and perceived task difficulty interactions on motivations, affect, and performances. The TPPCA was partially confirmed in both tasks. Specifically, as the task difficulty level increased, arousal increased, pleasantness decreased, and the performance declined. There was no solid support that motivational adaptations were congruent with the TPPCA. The findings pertaining to the human adaptation state represent a first step in encouraging future inquiries in this domain. The findings clarify the notion of perceived task difficulty and self-efficacy discrepancy, which then provokes cognitive appraisals and emotional resources to produce an adaptation response.

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

stimulation may increase temporary arousal, stimulating attention ( Coull, 1998 ). It might be that this temporary arousal benefits concentration, which is necessary for the digit span forward test. In this study, we were focused on the impact of a multi-component intervention, as previous research showed

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SeYun Park and Jennifer L. Etnier

.1123/jsep.19.3.249 10.1123/jsep.19.3.249 3. Lambourne K , Tomporowski P . The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis . Brain Res . 2010 ; 1341 : 12 – 24 . PubMed ID: 20381468 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.091 10.1016/j.brainres.2010