In recent publications of Featherstone (1982) and Orbach (1985) it is claimed that women are concerned with attaining and displaying the ideal outer body image, and with taking responsibility for maintaining their inner body health. This project examines the extent to which women involved in regular attendance at aerobic exercise sessions at a city health and leisure club perceived their participation in terms of these foreshadowed issues. Methodologically, it draws upon two techniques from the field-studies approach to social investigation. A participant observation program was carried out and a specific interview technique was used. Through the subsequent theory/data dialogue, the extent to which these foreshadowed issues and others emerged as significant is considered.
Bede Redican and Debbie Sue Hadley
Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail
Sport consumers are increasingly discontented and disconnected with sport organizations and researchers have advocated a fundamental shift in sport marketing from a traditional exchange paradigm to a relationship paradigm. Relationship quality is critical to understanding sport consumer-organization relationships because it can: (a) render a platform to organize wide-ranging relational constructs; (b) provide insight into evaluating relationship-marketing effectiveness; and (c) diagnose and address problems in relationships. Therefore, we propose a conceptual framework of sport consumer-organization relationship quality that consists of three main components. First, we specify that relationship quality consists of five distinct but related relational constructs (trust, commitment, intimacy, self-connection, and reciprocity). Second, we suggest that relationship quality influences word of mouth, media consumption, licensed-product consumption, and attendance behaviors. Finally, we argue that psychographic factors such as relationship styles, relationship drive, and general interpersonal orientation are moderators, as well as demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, region, and income.
Brendan Dwyer and Yongjae Kim
The contemporary sport fan has the ability to consume spectator sport through several means including event attendance, television and radio broadcasts, print publications, and Internet applications. Recently, an ancillary sport service, termed fantasy sports, has become one of the most popular activities among sport fans. As a result, the business of fantasy sports is booming. This study examined motivational dimensions underlying fantasy football participation from a Uses and Gratifications perspective. Utilizing Churchill’s (1979) five-step method for developing quality marketing measures, this study identified and validated three motivational dimensions: entertainment/escape, competition, and social interaction. The results suggest a pattern of fantasy football participation that is more purposeful and active than traditional media use. Discussed are the gambling associations, future research opportunities, and suggestions for developing fantasy football participation into a more creative and interactive marketing communication tool.
Yu Kyoum Kim, Galen Trail and Yong Jae Ko
The importance of relationship quality in relationship marketing has been well documented; however, very little attention has been paid to the issues of relationship quality in sport consumer behavior contexts. We investigated the cognitive structure of relationship quality (RQ) constructs (Trust, Commitment, Intimacy, Identification, Reciprocity) by comparing a general-specific model to a hierarchical model. In addition we empirically tested the link between RQ and three sport consumer behavioral intentions: attendance, media consumption, and licensed merchandise consumption. The model comparison revealed that individual constructs reflected both the distinct aspects of the specific dimensions of relationship quality and the holistic nature of relationship quality, supporting a general-specific model. Results from the simultaneous equation model indicated that for sport consumers, relationship quality with the team explained 56% of the variance in intention to attend games, 75% of intention to consume sport media, and 66% of intention to purchase licensed merchandise.
Taryn Wishart, Seung Pil Lee and T. Bettina Cornwell
Price setting in the sponsorship of sport, charity, arts and entertainment is usually negotiated, and private, so we know little about what determines price. With a sample of publicly available sponsorship proposals, the relationship between sponsorship characteristics and price set by the property is examined. Media coverage and attendance levels are hypothesized to have a positive impact on property price, as are a host of on-site communications. Overall the most influential variable explaining the property’s asking price is media coverage. In contrast, on-site communications are not important in price setting. Interestingly, access to property offerings such as celebrities and venues has a significant positive impact on property price. While the empirical investigation is limited to the relationship between communication characteristics and asking price, the price negotiation process and property-based characteristics that lead to the final price are also discussed.
This article uses a case-study approach to develop an understanding of how framing on game telecasts can increase the brand equity of sports venues. In 2014, ESPN ranked the NHL’s New York Islanders last in “stadium experience” among all 122 teams in the 4 major North American sports leagues. Given the Islanders’ looming relocation, the 2014–15 NHL season afforded the last opportunity to consider how telecasts would portray the team’s arena, Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum on Long Island. Based on a textual analysis of Islanders telecasts, 2 frames emerged: atmosphere (loud cheering and tributes to veterans) and nostalgia (famous moments and players from the arena’s history). Teams that play in poorly regarded venues can encourage broadcasters to employ frames such as atmosphere and nostalgia to increase attendance and sales of venue-related merchandise.
Claudia Emes, Beth Velde, Mary Moreau, Douglas D. Murdoch and Rebecca Trussell
Two methods of introducing obese adolescents to aerobic exercise were compared. A fast-start group began with five aerobic sessions per week and gradually reduced these to three over a period of 12 weeks. A slow-start group began with one per week and gradually increased to three. A control group had an equivalent amount of time in interactive group sessions and nonaerobic activity. The program was assessed by physical fitness, anthropometry, and attendance. Results were analyzed by multivariate analysis. The method of introducing exercise to the subjects produced no significant differences on measures of fitness or anthropometry. Significant effects for time were shown for strength, push-ups, body mass index, the sum of five skinfolds, gluteal and abdominal circumferences, weight, and percent overweight. Significant differences in the absenteeism rates were shown among groups. However, no relationship was found between absenteeism and changes in weight or overall fitness levels.
Coyte G. Cooper
Upon being hired as an assistant wrestling coach at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I program, you have learned that your head coach has given you the task of spearheading the marketing efforts for the upcoming season. With little knowledge in this area, you have decided to apply to the National Wrestling Coaches Association (NWCA) Leadership Academy in August at their annual convention. After being accepted, you have learned that a primary emphasis of the academy is providing coaches with the skill sets necessary to be the CEO of their program. As you attend the different sessions at the academy, there are a variety of different traditional and new media marketing initiatives that are presented as potential strategies to grow programs at the local level. With a goal of increasing attendance and social media followers, you are now presented with the challenge of developing a plan to better market the program moving forward.
David Atkin, Leo W. Jeffres, Jae-Won Lee and Kimberly A. Neuendorf
The current study examined relationships between sports consumption, values, and media use. In particular, the authors considered relationships between athletic or physical values, perceptions of their portrayal in the entertainment media, sports media use, athletic behaviors (attending events, playing sports), and general media use. A probability survey in a major metropolitan area revealed that sports fandom is related to the importance of being healthy, athletic, and physically fit. These findings suggest that the “passive” leisure allocations commonly ascribed to sports viewing do not displace “active” leisure in the form of actual attendance at sporting events and programs. With regard to sports competition generally, then, the authors see little support for Putnam’s (1995, 2001) metaphor of “bowling alone” (or media-induced malaise) among our sports fans.
Joan L. Duda, Alison E. Smart and Marlene K. Tappe
This study examined the relationship between the three facets of subjective meaning—personal incentives, sense of self, and perceived behavioral options—and adherence behaviors in the athletic injury rehabilitation setting. Subjects were 40 intercollegiate athletes who had sustained a sport related injury; all completed a questionnaire assessing the three components of meaning specific to sport and injury rehabilitation. Adherence was defined as a composite of attendance at the prescribed sessions, degree of completion of the prescribed exercise protocol, and the athlete's intensity or effort exerted in performing the prescribed exercise. Multiple-regression analyses indicated that each dimension significantly predicted adherence behaviors. Athletes who demonstrated greater adherence believed in the efficacy of the treatment, perceived more social support for their rehabilitation, were more goal directed or self-motivated, and placed more emphasis on mastery or task-involved goals in sport.