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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

also be influenced by three basic psychological needs ( Deci & Ryan, 2012 ): autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy is associated with the efforts that individuals make to feel at the origin of their actions and to determine their own behavior. Competence is defined as the intention to control

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

-rate variability (HRV) describes the variation in beat-by-beat intervals in different situations. 9 Several studies have used HRV to monitor individual recovery and training adaptations to better understand the status of the autonomic nervous system, stress, and recovery balance in elite athletes. 4 , 10 , 11

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Jennifer L. Copeland

prolonged sitting time may be beneficial to older adults and help them maintain their functional capacity and autonomy. However, there is much work to be done before we are ready for large-scale, population-level interventions that specifically target “sitting time.” As the field continues to expand, we

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

performance test, heart rate variability (HRV) was monitored to evaluate physiological changes of the autonomic nervous system. 26 Before starting the shooting performance tests, participants wore an elastic electrode belt (Polar Team 2; Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) for the collection of HRV measures

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

EECP effects on exercise performance, lactate removal, autonomic nervous system recovery, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Because accumulation of intracellular metabolites (hydrogen ions and inorganic phosphate) can impair contractile function, especially during high-intensity exercise, 12 we

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers

Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.

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Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride and Xiaoxia Su


Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.


Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.


Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.


The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

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Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens

The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers’ beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers’ in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers’ beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers’ actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

, nutrition and sleep), life stress, and health must be assessed. 18 The athlete’s motivation and autonomy in the implementation of training plans, as well as general well-being, must be considered. 17 Consequently, a multidisciplinary research approach is necessary to fully understand the challenging process

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Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Paralympic athletes are a population group with unique challenges in autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory function, relative to able-bodied (AB) athletes. While this has been acknowledged by researchers, 1 there is still a dearth of research in elite athletes with physical impairments. The