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Jennifer L. Copeland

prolonged sitting time may be beneficial to older adults and help them maintain their functional capacity and autonomy. However, there is much work to be done before we are ready for large-scale, population-level interventions that specifically target “sitting time.” As the field continues to expand, we

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

EECP effects on exercise performance, lactate removal, autonomic nervous system recovery, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Because accumulation of intracellular metabolites (hydrogen ions and inorganic phosphate) can impair contractile function, especially during high-intensity exercise, 12 we

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Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens

The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers’ beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers’ in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers’ beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers’ actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers

Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.

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Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride and Xiaoxia Su

Purpose:

Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.

Methods:

Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.

Results:

Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.

Discussion/Conclusion:

The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Paralympic athletes are a population group with unique challenges in autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory function, relative to able-bodied (AB) athletes. While this has been acknowledged by researchers, 1 there is still a dearth of research in elite athletes with physical impairments. The

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Robin S. Vealey, Eric Martin, Angela Coppola, Rose Marie Ward and Jacob Chamberlin

(emotional exhaustion and depersonalization), feelings of being extrinsically controlled in their motivation or lacking in motivation, and low feelings of autonomy. Socially-prescribed perfectionism is characterized by perceptions that others hold unrealistically high standards for you and are critical of

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Eleanor Quested and Joan L. Duda

Grounded in the basic needs mini-theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study examined the interplay among perceptions of the social environment manifested in vocational dance schools, basic need satisfaction, and indices of elite dancers’ well- and ill-being. The hypothesized mediating role of need satisfaction was also tested. Dancers (N = 392) completed a questionnaire tapping the targeted variables. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceptions of task-involving dance environments positively predicted need satisfaction. Perceived ego-involving climates negatively corresponded with competence and relatedness. Perceptions of autonomy support were positively related to autonomy and relatedness. Need satisfaction positively predicted positive affect. Competence and relatedness satisfaction corresponded negatively to reported negative affect. Emotional and physical exhaustion was not related to need satisfaction. Partial support emerged for the assumed mediation of the needs. Results highlight the relevance of task-involving and autonomy-supportive dance climates for elite dancers’ need satisfaction and healthful engagement in vocational dance.

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Simon J. Sebire, Mark J. Edwards, Kenneth R. Fox, Ben Davies, Kathryn Banfield, Lesley Wood and Russell Jago

The implementation, fidelity, and receipt of a self-determination-theory-based after-school physical activity intervention (Action 3:30) delivered by teaching assistants (TAs) was examined using a mixed-methods process evaluation. Physical activity motivation and need satisfaction were reported by 539 participants at baseline, the end of intervention, and 4-month follow-up. Pupil- and TA-reported autonomy-support and teaching efficacy were collected alongside interviews with 18 TAs and focus groups with 60 participants. Among intervention boys there were small increases in identified, introjected, and external motivation and no differences in need satisfaction. Among girls, intrinsic and identified motivation and autonomy and relatedness were lower in the intervention group. Qualitative evidence for fidelity was moderate, and boys reported greater need satisfaction than girls. TAs provided greater structure than involvement or autonomy-support and felt least efficacious when facing school-based challenges. The findings highlight the refinements needed to enhance theoretical fidelity and intervention effectiveness for boys and girls.

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Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill and Christopher P. Niemiec

The potential benefits of children’s engagement in sport for their psychological, social, and physical health are well established. Yet children may also experience psychological and social impairments due, in part, to a variety of detrimental coach behaviors. In the current study, we proposed and tested a conditional process model of children’s self-reported behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory. Results from a sample of 245 youth soccer players suggested that structure from coaches related positively to behavioral engagement and negatively to behavioral disaffection, and that these relations were mediated by athletes’ basic psychological need satisfaction. Importantly, and in line with our hypotheses, these indirect effects were moderated by autonomy support from coaches, such that the mediation was evident only among those who reported higher levels of autonomy support. These findings underscore the importance of coaches’ providing guidance, expectations, and feedback (i.e., structure) in a way that respects athletes’ volition (i.e., autonomy support).