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Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie and Hiroaki Kanehisa

” muscles that are prime movers of the task and responsible for its performance. Sprinting is a motor task in which the body mass of a runner is rapidly propelled forward by a propulsive force produced by lower-limb joint torques. Thus, identifying the key lower-limb muscles in sprinting is essential to

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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

after exercise. However, survey data indicate that endurance athletes give little to no attention to the recommendations of these published positions from academia, and few endurance athletes actually measure the preexercise-to-postexercise body mass change to determine sweat volume or use change in

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Chelsee Shortt, Adam Pennell and Ryan Sacko

with a socioeconomically disadvantaged setting ( Jin & Jones-Smith, 2015 ; Ogden, Lamb, Carroll, & Flegal, 2010 ; Wang & Lim, 2012 ). Furthermore, body mass index (BMI) scores for elementary school-age children with disabilities are 38% higher than for children without disabilities, and worryingly

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

studies. 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 The TP, HP, and LP differ in several aspects, such as normalized strength by body mass, 7 peak torque, 7 , 8 and power. 8 However, other studies did not find significant differences in several outcomes for these groups, especially for HP and LP (eg, lean body mass), 9 fat, 9

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Kate M. Sansum, Max E. Weston, Bert Bond, Emma J. Cockcroft, Amy O’Connor, Owen W. Tomlinson, Craig A. Williams and Alan R. Barker

in 100% in children ( 7 ). Previous studies have suggested that nonverification may be related to factors, such as sex, body mass, CRF, and/or maturity status ( 4 , 7 , 9 ), but the current pediatric literature is based on small sample sizes (n = 9–40) ( 2 , 5 , 31 , 32 ) which limits the examination

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman and Chris R. Abbiss

), MMA ( P  < .001), MT/K ( P  = .002), and TKD athletes ( P  < .001) (Table  3 ). A significant interaction ( P  < .001) was observed between sports for the most amount of weight athletes reported ever losing for a competition (∼9.5% of body mass), with MMA athletes reporting a significantly greater

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Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh and Samuel J. Oliver

, 2005 ; Oliver et al., 2008 ; Sands & Layton, 2009 ). Although most of these hydration markers have shown promise to identify moderate and severe ID (>3% body mass; Armstrong et al., 1994 , 2014 ; Cheuvront et al., 2012 ; Walsh, Laing, Oliver, Montague, Walters, & Bilzon, 2004 ), limited research

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque and Marcelo Romanzini

(volume, bouts, and breaks) and obesity indicators (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, and subscapular skinfolds) using more rigorous criteria (not including light physical activity) among adolescents. Methods Sample This was a school-based cross-sectional study involving adolescents (both sexes

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba and Joseph M. Hart

Key Points ▸ Correlations exist between anthropometric measures and transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness, but are influenced by positions and history of low back pain status. ▸ Mass and body mass index were the most consistent normalization variables for the transversus

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Wael Maktouf, Sylvain Durand, Bruno Beaune and Sébastien Boyas

due to the continuous pressure of supporting a large mass. 3 , 7 – 9 Second, a greater mechanical demand related to the large body mass per se and a nonnegligible proportion of body mass further away from the axis of rotation (ie, ankle joint assuming an inverted pendulum model) might cause a greater