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Larissa R. Galatti, Yura Yuka Sato dos Santos and Paula Korsakas

Unlike other countries, coaching in Brazil is recognized as a profession since the legal regulation of physical education (PE) in 1998 ( Law 9696, September 1, 1998 ). This makes our coaching system unique and demands new approaches to coaching education ( Milistetd et al., 2016 ; Milistetd

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Laurie B. Patterson, Susan H. Backhouse and Sergio Lara-Bercial

( Fjeldheim, 1992 ; Mandic, Peric, Krzelj, Stankovic & Zenic, 2013 ; Sajber, Rodek, Escalante, Olujic´, & Sekulic, 2013 ; Rodek, Sekulic & Kondric, 2012 ). A similar rate of engagement with formal learning has been found across National Governing Body-led coach education ( North, 2009 ). In the absence of

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Lindsey E. Eberman, Kimberly J. Bodey, Rebecca Zakrajsek, Madeline McGuire and Adam Simpson

Background:

The National Standards for Sport Coaches (2006) acknowledges that differences exist in athletes’ ability to tolerate heat. As such, Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention (S7-10), Domain 3: Physical Conditioning (S12-13), and Domain 7: Organization and Administration (S34) list expectations for coaches’ ability to recognize and respond to heat illness. However, only the American Red Cross of Greater Indianapolis (Domain 2 specific) and 13 programs are accredited by NCACE. Moreover, on-line trainings frequently used to educate novice interscholastic and recreational sport coaches provide only a cursory review of heat illness precautions, symptoms, and remedies.

Objective:

The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify changes in coaches’ actual and perceived knowledge after an on-line educational intervention, as well as determine whether the educational intervention will decrease the knowledge gap.

Research Design:

A pre-test/post-test design was used to identify the effect of an educational intervention on perceived and actual knowledge of sport coaches.

Participants:

Coaches (n=19; male=14, female=5) were solicited via email made available by the Indiana High School Athletic Association and the Indiana Youth Soccer Association – Olympic Development Program.

Instrumentation:

The Perceived Knowledge Questionnaire (five-item survey) and an actual knowledge assessment (two versions of 19-item quiz) were used to measure the coaches’ perceived and actual knowledge about the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses. Participants completed the “Beat the Heat: Be a Better Coach in Extreme Environmental Conditions” educational intervention.

Procedures:

Coaches completed the on-line educational module including pre-test and post-tests evaluations of actual and perceived knowledge.

Statistical Analysis:

Researchers performed three separate paired t-tests to identify the effect of the educational intervention on the dependent variables: actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and knowledge gap. Significance was set a-prior at p<0.05.

Results:

Participants demonstrated a significant 18.1% improvement (t18=-4.877, p<0.001, ES=0.62) in actual knowledge scores. Perceived knowledge also significantly improved (t18=-2.585, p=0.019, ES=0.25). Knowledge gap, the difference between actual knowledge and perceived knowledge, became significantly smaller (t18=4.850, p<0.001, ES=0.63).

Conclusions:

Results indicate the on-line educational intervention improved actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and decreased the knowledge gap. Additional large scale study of this intervention is warranted.

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Lawrence W. Judge, Terry Crawford and Kimberly J. Bodey

Approximately 47 million boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18 years take part in sport activities each year, primarily in agency and community sponsored programs (Ewing & Seefeldt, 2002). The high level of participation requires many youth sport organizations to rely on volunteers, without whom there can be no programs. Yet volunteers receive little formal training to prepare them for their respective coaching endeavors (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2001; Gilbert et al., 2001; Gould, et al., 1990; Weiss & Hayashi, 1996).

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Tammy Sheehy, Sam Zizzi, Kristen Dieffenbach and Lee-Ann Sharp

initiated recognition of coaches’ need for professional development to perform optimally ( Mallett, Rynne, & Dickens, 2013 ). These advancements have been most notable in the establishment of international coaching organizations dedicated to the enhancement of high-quality coach education programs

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G. Cornelis van Kooten

The purpose in this paper is to examine the effectiveness/usefulness of the long-term athlete development (LTAD) model, particularly in the coaching of judo. The major influences on the LTAD approach, including deliberate practice, are reviewed along with recent evidence that leads to questions about the usefulness of the LTAD model. While Judo Canada has attempted to implement this model in its program to train coaches, there remains a great deal of incongruity between the LTAD approach and the pedagogy that often characterizes judo.

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Andrew P. Driska and Daniel R. Gould

Research has shown that coaches learn through reflective practice (Trudel & Gilbert, 2006), that communities of practice can assist the reflective process (Culver & Trudel, 2008), and that problem-based learning can increase critical thought by coaches (Jones & Turner, 2006). To help coaches develop reflective practice skills in an online course, the authors designed and implemented a novel assignment combining the principles of a community of practice with problem-based learning. Small groups of students were presented with a problem scenario and then met synchronously online using a low bandwidth group chat application (EtherPad) to diagnose the problem, strategize, and outline a solution. Students were able to conduct group meetings with only minor technical diffculties, and their written work demonstrated that a moderate level of refection had occurred. Future assignment redesigns should allow more opportunities for student-instructor interaction to facilitate greater development of student reflective practice skills.

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David Barney

Coaching is a very visible profession, to the point that a coach’s every move is scrutinized. This was clearly evident in the tragic events that transpired in 2011, involving legendary American football coach Joe Paterno at Penn State University. With this high visibility, coaches need more than ever to set good examples for those they represent. In school or college settings they represent athletes, parents, the student body, administrators, and the community. The purpose of this commentary is to reinforce a coach’s responsibility to set a good example and the responsibility of coaching educators in preparing future coaches to be good examples.