Search Results

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 2,779 items for :

  • "competition" x
Clear All
Restricted access

Bob Murray, John Stofan and Bob Sallis

Objective:

This article summarizes a case of ischemic colitis suffered by a triathlete during an Ironman competition.

Background:

Exercise results in a significant reduction in splanchnic blood flow to help maintain cardiovascular function. When dehydration and heat stress accompany exercise, blood flow to the splanchnic vasculature is further reduced, increasing the risk of local ischemia and tissue injury.

Differential Diagnosis:

Ischemic colitis caused by dehydration and heat stress.

Treatment:

Right hemicolectomy involving a 16-cm segment of ischemic large intestine and appendectomy the day following the race.

Uniqueness:

This case study highlights one of the risks associated with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. Of particular interest are practical interventions to reduce health and performance issues.

Conclusions:

Poor hydration and nutrition practices during intense exercise can affect gut function, impair performance, and jeopardize health. Optimal intake of fluid, carbohydrate, and salt will enhance performance and reduce risk to health.

Restricted access

Stephen D. Mellalieu, Sheldon Hanton and Graham Jones

The purpose of this study was to extend the work of Jones and Hanton (2001) by examining differences in affective states of performers who reported facilitating or debilitating interpretations of symptoms associated with precompetitive anxiety. Competitive athletes (N = 229) completed state and trait versions of the CSAI-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990), including intensity and direction subscales (Jones & Swain, 1992) and an exploratory measure of precompetitive affective responses in preparation and competition. “Facilitators” reported significantly greater positive labeling of affective experiences than “debilitators,” while cognitive interpretations of symptoms were reported to change with regard to preparation for and actual performance. The findings further support the need to examine the labeling and measurement of precompetitive affective states.

Restricted access

Kerry S. Courneya and Albert V. Carron

A home advantage in sport competitions has been well documented. The strength and consistency of the home advantage has made it a popular phenomenon in sport today. Very little systematic research has been carried out, however, and the home advantage remains one of the least understood phenomena in sport. It appears that much of the game location research has been arbitrary, and a clear sense of direction is lacking. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a conceptual framework to organize a comprehensive review of previous game location research and provide direction for future research. The review of literature indicated that the descriptive phase of inquiry has been completed, and it is time to address the underlying mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of the home advantage. Possible methodologies and areas of inquiry are highlighted and discussed.

Restricted access

Vince Gennaro

This case was prepared by the author for the Diamond Dollars Case Competition in March 2013. It was developed for the purpose of a case discussion. It contains various assumptions that were generated for illustrative purposes and is not intended to serve as a source of primary data. It takes the hypothetical 2013 performance of young baseball superstar Mike Trout to provide students with an opportunity to apply analytical skills to the types of real-world problems faced by professional sport organizations. The case study invites students to weigh the many factors that Los Angeles Angels management must consider in determining how to realistically negotiate with Trout for the benefit of the ball club following the 2013 Major League baseball season.

Restricted access

Peter Jensen, Jorge Roman, Barrett Shaft and Craig Wrisberg

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) is a relatively new and rapidly growing sport within contemporary athletics yet, to date, it has received relatively little attention in the sport psychology literature. To shed more light on the sport, the aim of the current study was to examine the experiences of MMA fighters during sanctioned competitions. Audio-recorded phenomenological interviews were conducted with seven participants and the transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify emerging themes. The findings revealed that the most important aspect of fighters’ experience was the chaotic nature of MMA fights, which participants characterized as “cage reality.” The results also suggested that fighters’ arousal regulation skills are at least as important as their technical skills for performance success. Taken together, the present findings extend previous research on MMA and suggest several implications for sport psychology consultants interested in working with fighters.

Restricted access

Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore and Kevin G. Thompson

(eg, Northern Hemisphere winter) limitations may restrict the athletes’ ability to access altitude training venues >2000 m. Athletes therefore undertake “low” altitude (1000–2000 m) training in the belief it aids competition performance. Although low altitudes are favorable in maintaining training

Restricted access

Paul G. Montgomery, David B. Pyne and Clare L. Minahan

Purpose:

To characterize the physical and physiological responses during different basketball practice drills and games.

Methods:

Male basketball players (n = 11; 19.1 ± 2.1 y, 1.91 ± 0.09 m, 87.9 ± 15.1 kg; mean ± SD) completed offensive and defensive practice drills, half court 5on5 scrimmage play, and competitive games. Heart rate, VO2 and triaxial accelerometer data (physical demand) were normalized for individual participation time. Data were log-transformed and differences between drills and games standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with the effect size (ES) statistic.

Results:

There was no substantial difference in the physical or physiological variables between offensive and defensive drills; physical load (9.5%; 90% confidence limits ±45); mean heart rate (-2.4%; ±4.2); peak heart rate (-0.9%; ±3.4); and VO2 (–5.7%; ±9.1). Physical load was moderately greater in game play compared with a 5on5 scrimmage (85.2%; ±40.5); with a higher mean heart rate (12.4%; ±5.4). The oxygen demand for live play was substantially larger than 5on5 (30.6%; ±15.6).

Conclusions:

Defensive and offensive drills during basketball practice have similar physiological responses and physical demand. Live play is substantially more demanding than a 5on5 scrimmage in both physical and physiological attributes. Accelerometers and predicted oxygen cost from heart rate monitoring systems are useful for differentiating the practice and competition demands of basketball.

Restricted access

Jonathon R. Lever, Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield and Hugh H.K. Fullagar

Sleep is considered important for optimal athletic preparation and postexercise recovery. However, evidence suggests that athletes experience poor sleep quantity and quality, 1 particularly individual 1 and junior athletes 2 and on nights preceding important competitions. 3 , 4 In turn, high

Restricted access

Andrew Cooke, Maria Kavussanu, David McIntyre and Christopher Ring

It is well documented that competition can affect performance and emotion in sport. However, our understanding of the comparative effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion is limited. We also know little about emotion-based mechanisms underlying the effects of different types of competition on performance. To address these issues, 64 participants completed a handgrip endurance task during time-trial, one-on-one, two-on-two, and four-on-four competitions while self-report and possible corroborative physiological measures of enjoyment, anxiety, and effort were assessed. Results indicated that performance, enjoyment, anxiety, and effort increased from individual to team competitions. The observed increases in performance were mediated by increased enjoyment and effort. Our findings illustrate differential effects of individual and team competitions on performance and emotion. Moreover, they indicate that both enjoyment-based and anxiety-based mechanisms can explain changes in performance among different types of individual and team competition.

Restricted access

Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

’s pacing before entering the finish sprint leads to various degrees of fatigue. Due to the competition format in XC skiing sprint, the pacing utilized during heats and thereby the subsequent grade of fatigue at the finish sprint is decided both by each athlete’s choice of effort and the competition speed