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Samuel M. Clevenger

( Gilfoyle, 1992 ; Lefkowitz Horowitz, 2002 ). Cohen traces this definition of “sporting culture” into eighteenth-century American history, highlighting competitive, physical sporting experiences in terms of their location within a hypermasculine “sporting culture” of games, events, and spaces that white

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Courteney L. Benjamin, William M. Adams, Ryan M. Curtis, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Gabrielle E.W. Giersch and Douglas J. Casa

for health, well-being, and performance of competitive athletes ( Leeder, Glaister, Pizzoferro, Dawson, & Pedlar, 2012 ; Schaal et al., 2015 , 2011 ). It has been suggested that young adults (ages 18–25) should obtain 7 to 9 hours of sleep every night ( Hirshkowitz et al., 2015 ) to maintain healthy

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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

.e., reduced percentages of players born in successive quartiles) from Q2 to Q4. In all but one of these studies (exception: Chittle et al., 2015 ), three other trends have been observed: (a) players born in Q4 are underrepresented; (b) RAEs are evident over multiple levels of competitive play; and (c) RAEs weaken as

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Michelle Murphy

the growth of competitive skiing, marked a shift in the sport as a means to conquer the outdoors. Finally, part three examines consumption and development within the skiing culture. Alpine modernism culminated in a desire to develop mountain landscapes into mechanized resort towns that offered perfect

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Emalee Nelson

only illustrate the many struggles women faced in their early efforts to play a type of competitive baseball equal to their male counterpart, but show the power the reporters/journalists had on shaping the perception of 19th century women in sport. Though many other books on women in baseball tend to

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Matthew R. Hodler

portrayed him as a revolutionizing figure for making competitive swimming (somewhat) popular, the liberalization process provided space for a singular athlete like Michael Phelps to participate within this process for his own individual economic and social benefit in a way that not only does not

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Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin

over a 12-week program of sessions. B2N participants can choose to carry on engaging in B2N or progress to more competitive netball environments. All coaches on the program have level 2 UKCC/England Netball qualifications and the coaches are provided with a B2N resource pack and formal mentoring. These

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Anne Tjønndal

International Boxing Association (AIBA 2 ) started sanctioning women’s bouts internationally in 1994. A couple of national boxing federations allowed women to step into the ring earlier than AIBA did. 3 Sweden and Norway were first to accept women’s participation in competitive boxing. Sweden was first in 1988

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Trenton M. Haltom

, basketball, or baseball, are where boys learn about manhood, bond with their fathers, and develop competitive attitudes ( Messner, 1992 ). Contrary to more traditional sports settings where masculinity and men dominate, feminized or women-dominated sports are also arenas for boys’ gender socialization. These

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Stephen Frawley, Daniel Favaloro and Nico Schulenkorf

leadership talent is much more complicated than it appears. The topic continues to be of significant interest in management studies because strong and effective leadership provides a source of competitive advantage for organizations ( Day, 2001 ). Similarly, the idea of succession management in the context