The influence of peer groups on children’s psychosocial development is highlighted in the sport psychology literature in areas such as motivation, self-perceptions, and affect. However, scant research has been devoted to examining children’s and teenagers’ conceptions of friendships within the physical domain. Current and former sport program participants (N = 38) took part in an in-depth interview that concerned their best friend in sports. An inductive content analysis revealed the existence of 12 positive friendship dimensions: companionship, pleasant play/association, self-esteem enhancement, help and guidance, prosocial behavior, intimacy, loyalty, things in common, attractive personal qualities, emotional support, absence of conflicts, and conflict resolution. Four negative friendship dimensions were extracted: conflict, unattractive personal qualities, betrayal, and inaccessible. These conceptions of friendship were both similar and unique to friendship conceptions found in mainstream developmental research. Future research directions include measurement efforts, relationships among important constructs, and intervention techniques in the sport setting.
Maureen R. Weiss, Alan L. Smith and Marc Theeboom
Raymond P. Harrison and Deborah L. Feltz
Sport psychology by its very title implies that it is a specialty within psychology. However, many sport psychologists have primary allegiance to other fields besides psychology, and many are not licensed or even eligible for licensing to practice psychology. Problems which have occurred for other psychological specialties are reviewed as a means of predicting conflicts which might arise between unlicensed sport psychologists and state psychology licensing boards. Several alternative responses are outlined by which sport psychologists might minimize future legal conflicts. In any event, sport psychologists should begin now to anticipate these difficulties and prepare means for dealing with them.
Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic and Stuart Goodall
case at higher concentrations (ie, 4.6% 12 ). Therefore, it is also plausible that menthol application could increase the risk of heat illness and place behavioral and thermoregulatory drivers in conflict. Nevertheless, there are iterations on the timing of menthol application that have not been
Nickolai Martonick, Kimber Kober, Abigail Watkins, Amanda DiEnno, Carmen Perez, Ashlie Renfro, Songah Chae and Russell Baker
conflicts of interest to report. References 1. Hewett TE , Myer GD , Ford K , et al . Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes . Am J Sports Med . 2009 ; 33 ( 4 ): 492 – 501 . doi: 10
Larry Lauer, Daniel Gould, Nathan Roman and Marguerite Pierce
Junior tennis coaches commonly argue that parents must push their children and be very involved to develop their talent, despite the strain on the parent-child relationship that may occur from these tactics. To examine parental influence on talent development and the parent-child relationship, nine professional tennis players, eight parents, and eight coaches were retrospectively interviewed about each player’s junior development based Bloom’s three stages of talent development (1985). Results are presented through aggregated, nonfiction stories of three tennis development pathways: smooth, difficult, and turbulent. Smooth pathways were typical of parents who were supportive and maintained a healthy parent-child relationship while facilitating talent development. Difficult and turbulent pathways involved parents who stressed the importance of tennis and created pressure by pushing their child toward winning and talent development. For difficult pathways, parent-child relationships were negatively affected but conflicts were mostly resolved, whereas for turbulent pathways, many conflicts remained unresolved.
Walter Gantz, Lawrence A. Wenner, Christina Carrico and Matthew Knorr
This paper describes the role of televised sports in married life. It documents how adults integrate televised sports into their relationship with their spouse and evaluate its impact on that relationship. Telephone interviews were conducted with 399 married adults residing in San Francisco and Indianapolis. Respondents were asked about their own TV sports viewing behaviors as well as those of their spouse. Televised sports appears to play a generally positive albeit small role in marital life. TV sports viewing often is a shared activity and does not appear to trigger many scheduling or TV viewing conflicts. And, when such conflicts occur, they appear to be resolved amicably and easily. It may be that accommodations for differing interests in TV sports are resolved early in a marital relationship, along with other accommodations that marriage often dictates.
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.
Juliette Stebbings, Ian M. Taylor, Christopher M. Spray and Nikos Ntoumanis
Embedded in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, we obtained self-report data from 418 paid and voluntary coaches from a variety of sports and competitive levels with the aim of exploring potential antecedents of coaches’ perceived autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors. Controlling for socially desirable responses, structural equation modeling revealed that greater job security and opportunities for professional development, and lower work–life conflict were associated with psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, was related to an adaptive process of psychological well-being and perceived autonomy support toward athletes. In contrast, higher work–life conflict and fewer opportunities for development were associated with a distinct maladaptive process of thwarted psychological needs, psychological ill-being, and perceived controlling interpersonal behavior. The results highlight how the coaching context may impact upon coaches’ psychological health and their interpersonal behavior toward athletes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the independence of adaptive and maladaptive processes within the self-determination theory paradigm.
Karen Davranche, Ben Hall and Terry McMorris
This study aimed to determine how cognitive control, engaged in a task requiring selective inhibition, is affected by acute steady-state exercise. An adapted version of the Eriksen flanker task, involving three types of trials that varied according to their level of congruency (congruent trials, stimulus-incongruent trials, and response-incongruent trials) was performed during 2 periods of 20-min cycling at a carefully controlled intensity (50% of maximal aerobic power). The results indicated that moderate exercise improves reaction time (RT) performance on the Eriksen flanker task. This facilitating effect appeared to be neither dependent on the nature of the interference (stimulus level conflict vs. response level conflict) nor on the amount of cognitive control engaged in the task (congruent vs. incongruent trials). Distributional RT analyses did not highlight any sign of impairment in the efficiency of cognitive control.
Daniel Balderson and Tom Sharpe
This study examined the effects of personal accountability and personal responsibility instructional treatments on elementary-age, urban, at-risk physical education students. A multiple treatment ABAD, ACAD, ADA, control behavior analysis design was implemented across four distinct matched class settings to determine the separate and combined treatment effects of each instructional treatment on the number of occurrences and percentage of class time for the following: teacher management, student leadership, passive and disruptive student off-task, positive social behavior, and student conflict and conflict resolution behaviors. Study participants included fourth- and fifth-grade students from four elementary classes in an inner-city charter-school setting. Results indicated that both personal accountability and personal responsibility treatments were effective in the primary treatment setting for changing all managerial, off-task, and positive social measures in desirable directions. Recommendations include analysis of the potential long-range and generalized effects of social-skill instruction for underserved children and youth conducted in the context of physical education classes.