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Mariana Kaiseler, Jamie M. Poolton, Susan H. Backhouse and Nick Stanger

The role of dispositional mindfulness on stress in student-athletes and factors that mediate this relationship has yet to be examined. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the facets of mindfulness and life stress in student-athletes and whether these relationships are mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Participants were 202 student-athletes who completed validated measures of dispositional mindfulness, student-athlete life stress, decision rumination and coping effectiveness in sport. Results indicated that the acting with awareness and nonjudging facets of mindfulness were negative predictors of life stress, whereas the observe facet was a positive predictor of life stress. Mediation analyses revealed that these relationships were mediated through coping effectiveness and decision rumination. Findings provide new insight into the role dispositional mindfulness plays on student-athlete perceptions of life stress and implications for practitioners are discussed.

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Patrick Gaudreau and Sheilah Antl

This study examined the associations of dispositional perfectionism, contextual motivation, sport-related coping, goal attainment, and changes in life satisfaction during a sport competition. A sample of 186 athletes completed measures of dispositional perfectionism, contextual motivation, and life satisfaction at Time 1 (before a competition) as well as measures of coping, goal attainment, and life satisfaction at Time 2 (after a competition). Results of structural equation modeling supported a model in which self-determined and non-self-determined motivation partially mediated the relationships between different dimensions of perfectionism and coping. It was also shown that disengagement-oriented coping mediated the negative relationship between evaluative concerns perfectionism and change in life satisfaction. In a similar way, goal attainment mediated the relationships of both task- and disengagement-oriented coping with change in life satisfaction. For the most part, these results are consistent with the motivational properties of evaluative concerns and personal standards perfectionism and with literature regarding coping and self-determination theory.

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Fraser Carson, Julia Walsh, Luana C. Main and Peter Kremer

coping, with the majority having an athlete focus ( Gulliver et al., 2015 ; Williams & Kendall, 2007 ). While an athlete focus is understandable, Williams and Kendall ( 2007 ) advocated that the focus should also include other individuals that have to perform in the sporting area, with an emphasis on

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Kadir Firidinoğlu, Suna Toksavul, Muhittin Toman, Mehmet Sarikanat and İbrahim Nergiz

The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance and fracture mode of single implant-zirconium coping combinations using zirconium and titanium abutments and to analyze the stress distribution pattern using three-dimensional finite elements analysis. Twenty implants with titanium and zirconium abutments were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10) and into resin blocks. Zirconium copings were cemented onto the abutments. The specimens were loaded with 135° angles to the long axis and the load values at the moment of failure were recorded using a universal test machine. Stress levels were calculated according to the maximum Von Mises criteria. The fracture resistances for titanium and zirconium abutment groups were 525.65 N and 514.05 N, respectively. No significant differences were observed between two groups regarding the fracture resistance levels. The maximum Von Mises equivalent stress concentrated on zirconium copings in both of the groups. Implant-abutment-ZrO2 coping combination has the potential to withstand physiological occlusal forces in the anterior region. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis results of the implant-abutment-ZrO2 coping combination is compatible with the results of fracture resistance.

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Zeljka Vidic, Mark St. Martin and Richard Oxhandler

This mixed methodology study investigated the effects of a ten session mindfulness-based intervention on a women’s collegiate basketball team’s (n = 13) perceived stress, athletic coping resources, and perceptions of the mindfulness intervention. Quantitative results showed a progressive decrease in stress and an increase in athletic coping skills over the course of the intervention. Qualitative results indicated the mindfulness intervention was beneficial in various aspects of the athletes’ lives in the form of improved awareness, control, focus, presence and relaxation. These results suggest that mindfulness training may be an effective approach in assisting college athletes attain benefits in both sport and life.

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Christina Johnson

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Rebecca Lewthwaite

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Rafer S. Lutz, Marc R. Lochbaum, Beth Lanning, Lucinda G. Stinson and Ronda Brewer

Blue-collar workers (N = 203) from a large food-processing plant in the south-western U.S. completed measures of perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at an initial test session in addition to a 2-month follow-up session. Mean age of the sample participants equaled 43.61 (SD = 9.79), and 69.5% of the sample were male, 71.4% were Caucasian, and 74.9% were married/cohabitating. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the cross-lagged relationships between perceived stress and leisure-time exercise at these time points, controlling for gender, marital status, age, and yearly household income. Results indicated that a model with a path from perceptions of Time 1 stress to Time 2 exercise frequency was most parsimonious and provided acceptable model ft, suggesting that perceptions of stress are related to reductions in exercise participation in this population. However, there was little support for a relationship between Time 1 exercise participation and Time 2 perceived stress.

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Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming and George M. Balanos

The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (M age = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge and threat scripts (p < .05). Although there were no differences in physiological response intensities for both stress-evoking scripts, these responses, along with anxiety symptoms, were interpreted as facilitative during the challenge script and debilitative during the threat script. Results support using imagery to facilitate adaptive stress appraisal.

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Alana Ninedek and Gregory S. Kelt

Context:

Recent literature has focused on the role of physiotherapists in addressing psychological sequelae of sport injury and rehabilitation.

Objective:

The study investigated sports physiotherapists' views of psychological characteristics that distinguished athletes who cope well with injury from those who cope poorly. Physiotherapists' opinions on the role of psychological skills in rehabilitation were also examined.

Design:

A questionnaire-based study.

Participants:

Participants were 150 physiotherapists who had completed, or were completing, a postgraduate sports physiotherapy program.

Main Outcome Measures:

The test instrument used was the Sports Physiotherapists' Views on Psychological Strategies questionnaire (adapted from Wiese et al1).

Results:

The physiotherapists reported communication skills, a positive attitude, intrinsic motivation, and realistic goal setting as important aspects of effective rehabilitation.

Conclusions:

The findings are discussed in relation to physiotherapists' roles in addressing basic psychological aspects of injury.