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Iñigo Mujika

communication with the author. CHO = carbohydrate; HCHO = high carbohydrate; LCHF = low carbohydrate, high fat; W = average power output. Subjective Well-Being The athlete reported that the months on the LCHF diet were mentally very tough: He had many psychic slumps and some feelings of depression. He

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Joanna Edel McHugh and Brian A. Lawlor


Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults.


As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week.


Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week.


We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

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C. Jessie Jones, Dana N. Rutledge and Jordan Aquino

The purposes of this study were to determine whether people with and without fibromyalgia (FM) age 50 yr and above showed differences in physical performance and perceived functional ability and to determine whether age, gender, depression, and physical activity level altered the impact of FM status on these factors. Dependent variables included perceived function and 6 performance measures (multidimensional balance, aerobic endurance, overall functional mobility, lower body strength, and gait velocity—normal or fast). Independent (predictor) variables were FM status, age, gender, depression, and physical activity level. Results indicated significant differences between adults with and without FM on all physical-performance measures and perceived function. Linear-regression models showed that the contribution of significant predictors was in expected directions. All regression models were significant, accounting for 16–65% of variance in the dependent variables.

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Vanessa J. Harbour, Timothy K. Behrens, Han S. Kim and Connie L. Kitchens


The purpose of this study was to examine whether college students meeting the vigorous physical activity (VPA) recommendation reported less frequent symptoms of depression than those not meeting the recommendation.


A secondary analysis of the Utah Higher Education Health Behavior Survey was conducted. Descriptive statistics and unconditional logistic regressions were calculated.


The final sample included 8621 participants (age = 21.34 ± 2.6 years). There was a difference in the frequency of depressive symptoms and VPA. Those not meeting the VPA recommendation reported having more frequent depressive symptoms than those meeting the VPA recommendation. Results were consistent by gender.


In this sample, our data suggest VPA may be associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms. These findings might be indicative of a dose–response relationship between VPA and symptoms of depression in college students.

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Robert A. Swoap, Nancy Norvell, James E. Graves and Michael L. Pollock

This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of a 26-week aerobic exercise program on a sample of sedentary older men (n = 26) and women (n = 23). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a high intensity exercise group (80−85% of maximal heart rate reserve), a moderate intensity exercise group (65−70% of maximal heart rate reserve), or a no-exercise control group. Results indicated that subjects in the high intensity exercise group exhibited significant increases in aerobic capacity compared to the moderate intensity group. Both exercising groups improved aerobic capacity and had significant decreases in body weight compared to the control group. Exercising subjects also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression at the end of the program, but not fewer than the control group. Overall, increases in VO2max were associated with decreases in depression.

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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew and Gemma Pearce

Using objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), this study tested the interaction between self-objectification, appearance evaluation, and self-esteem in predicting body satisfaction and mood states. Participants (N = 93) were physically active female university students. State self-objectification was manipulated by participants wearing tight revealing exercise attire (experimental condition) or baggy exercise clothes (control condition). Significant interactions emerged predicting depression, anger, fatness, and satisfaction with body shape and size. For participants in the self-objectification condition who had low (as opposed to high) appearance evaluation, low self-esteem was associated with high depression, anger, and fatness and low satisfaction with body shape and size. In contrast, for participants with high self-esteem, these mood and body satisfaction states were more favorable irrespective of their levels of appearance evaluation. For female exercisers, self-esteem-enhancing strategies may protect against some of the negative outcomes of self-objectification.

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Karen J. Calfas and Wendell C. Taylor

To identify the most consistent relationships among psychological variables and physical activity in youth (ages 11-21 years), 20 articles on depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, self-concept, hostility, anger, intellectual functioning, and psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Physical activity was consistently related to improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, depressive symptoms, and anxiety/stress. The effect sizes were +.12, -.15, and -.38 for self-esteem/self-concept, stress/anxiety, and depression, respectively. The evidence for hostility/anger and academic achievement was inconclusive. No negative effects of physical activity were reported. The literature suggests that physical activity in youth is psychologically beneficial. More research is needed to confirm previous findings. Adolescents should engage in moderate or vigorous aerobic activity approximately three times per week for a total of at least 60 minutes per week.

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Noelia Galiano-Castillo, Manuel Arroyo-Morales, Angélica Ariza-Garcia, Carmen Sánchez-Salado, Carolina Fernández-Lao, Irene Cantarero-Villanueva and Lydia Martín-Martín

This study examined the relationship between the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and fitness, psychological and physiologic states, quality of life, cancer-related symptoms, and body composition of 87 women with breast cancer. The assessment included the 6MWT and evaluations of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC C-30 and EORTC BR-23), cognitive performance (Trail Making Test), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, body composition, health-related fitness (abdominal test, multiple sit-to-stand test, trunk dynamometry), and pain (Brief Pain Inventory). We observed the following correlations: moderate between 6MWT and pain interference; modest for cognitive and social functioning and the multiple sit-to-stand test; fair for several items on the Cancer Quality of Life, for anxiety, lean body mass, trunk dynamometry and pain intensity; and weak for role functioning, loss of appetite, cognitive performance and depression. Thus, the 6MWT could be used as a measure of the major components of global health in women with breast cancer.

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Parinda Khatri, James A. Blumenthal, Michael A. Babyak, W. Edward Craighead, Steve Herman, Teri Baldewicz, David J. Madden, Murali Doraiswamy, Robert Waugh and K. Ranga Krishnan

The effects of a structured exercise program on the cognitive functioning of 84 clinically depressed middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 57 years) were examined. Participants were randomized to either 4 months of aerobic exercise (n = 42) or antidepressant medication (n = 42). Assessments of cognitive functioning (memory, psychomotor speed, executive functioning, and attention/concentration), depression, and physical fitness (aerobic capacity and exercise endurance) were conducted before and after the intervention. Exercise-related changes (accounting for baseline levels of cognitive functioning and depression) were observed for memory (p = .01) and executive functioning (p = .03). There were no treatment-group differences on tasks measuring either attention/concentration or psychomotor speed. Results indicate that exercise can exert influence on specific areas of cognitive functioning among depressed older adults. Further research is necessary to clarify the kinds of cognitive processes that are affected by exercise and the mechanisms by which exercise affects cognitive functioning.

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Preeti D. Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski and Richard K. Shields

H-reflex depression (diminution of amplitude after a conditioning stimulus) is mediated presynaptically and therefore can help distinguish central versus peripheral mechanisms of fatigue. We examined the effects of a dynamic exercise protocol on H-reflex depression using two conditioning methods: homonymous conditioning (paired-pulse tibial nerve stimulation); and heteronymous conditioning (common peroneal nerve stimulation). Ten subjects performed dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle through 30° ankle range of motion. The concentric phase required a target force of 10% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and the eccentric phase force target was 80% MVIC. Fatigue persisted for >20 min after cessation of the exercise. Compared with prefatigue values, the dynamic fatigue protocol did not increase presynaptic inhibition after either homonymous or heteronymous conditioning. Peak to peak amplitude of unconditioned H-reflexes was likewise unchanged despite a long term depression of muscle force (long duration fatigue). These results suggest that persistent fatigue after dynamic exercise is attributed to muscle changes and not altered spinal mechanisms.