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C. Jessie Jones, Dana N. Rutledge and Jordan Aquino

The purposes of this study were to determine whether people with and without fibromyalgia (FM) age 50 yr and above showed differences in physical performance and perceived functional ability and to determine whether age, gender, depression, and physical activity level altered the impact of FM status on these factors. Dependent variables included perceived function and 6 performance measures (multidimensional balance, aerobic endurance, overall functional mobility, lower body strength, and gait velocity—normal or fast). Independent (predictor) variables were FM status, age, gender, depression, and physical activity level. Results indicated significant differences between adults with and without FM on all physical-performance measures and perceived function. Linear-regression models showed that the contribution of significant predictors was in expected directions. All regression models were significant, accounting for 16–65% of variance in the dependent variables.

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Parinda Khatri, James A. Blumenthal, Michael A. Babyak, W. Edward Craighead, Steve Herman, Teri Baldewicz, David J. Madden, Murali Doraiswamy, Robert Waugh and K. Ranga Krishnan

The effects of a structured exercise program on the cognitive functioning of 84 clinically depressed middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 57 years) were examined. Participants were randomized to either 4 months of aerobic exercise (n = 42) or antidepressant medication (n = 42). Assessments of cognitive functioning (memory, psychomotor speed, executive functioning, and attention/concentration), depression, and physical fitness (aerobic capacity and exercise endurance) were conducted before and after the intervention. Exercise-related changes (accounting for baseline levels of cognitive functioning and depression) were observed for memory (p = .01) and executive functioning (p = .03). There were no treatment-group differences on tasks measuring either attention/concentration or psychomotor speed. Results indicate that exercise can exert influence on specific areas of cognitive functioning among depressed older adults. Further research is necessary to clarify the kinds of cognitive processes that are affected by exercise and the mechanisms by which exercise affects cognitive functioning.

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Noelia Galiano-Castillo, Manuel Arroyo-Morales, Angélica Ariza-Garcia, Carmen Sánchez-Salado, Carolina Fernández-Lao, Irene Cantarero-Villanueva and Lydia Martín-Martín

This study examined the relationship between the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and fitness, psychological and physiologic states, quality of life, cancer-related symptoms, and body composition of 87 women with breast cancer. The assessment included the 6MWT and evaluations of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC C-30 and EORTC BR-23), cognitive performance (Trail Making Test), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, body composition, health-related fitness (abdominal test, multiple sit-to-stand test, trunk dynamometry), and pain (Brief Pain Inventory). We observed the following correlations: moderate between 6MWT and pain interference; modest for cognitive and social functioning and the multiple sit-to-stand test; fair for several items on the Cancer Quality of Life, for anxiety, lean body mass, trunk dynamometry and pain intensity; and weak for role functioning, loss of appetite, cognitive performance and depression. Thus, the 6MWT could be used as a measure of the major components of global health in women with breast cancer.

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Vanessa J. Harbour, Timothy K. Behrens, Han S. Kim and Connie L. Kitchens

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether college students meeting the vigorous physical activity (VPA) recommendation reported less frequent symptoms of depression than those not meeting the recommendation.

Methods:

A secondary analysis of the Utah Higher Education Health Behavior Survey was conducted. Descriptive statistics and unconditional logistic regressions were calculated.

Results:

The final sample included 8621 participants (age = 21.34 ± 2.6 years). There was a difference in the frequency of depressive symptoms and VPA. Those not meeting the VPA recommendation reported having more frequent depressive symptoms than those meeting the VPA recommendation. Results were consistent by gender.

Conclusion:

In this sample, our data suggest VPA may be associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms. These findings might be indicative of a dose–response relationship between VPA and symptoms of depression in college students.

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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jennifer Cumming, Kimberley J. Bartholomew and Gemma Pearce

Using objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), this study tested the interaction between self-objectification, appearance evaluation, and self-esteem in predicting body satisfaction and mood states. Participants (N = 93) were physically active female university students. State self-objectification was manipulated by participants wearing tight revealing exercise attire (experimental condition) or baggy exercise clothes (control condition). Significant interactions emerged predicting depression, anger, fatness, and satisfaction with body shape and size. For participants in the self-objectification condition who had low (as opposed to high) appearance evaluation, low self-esteem was associated with high depression, anger, and fatness and low satisfaction with body shape and size. In contrast, for participants with high self-esteem, these mood and body satisfaction states were more favorable irrespective of their levels of appearance evaluation. For female exercisers, self-esteem-enhancing strategies may protect against some of the negative outcomes of self-objectification.

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Karen J. Calfas and Wendell C. Taylor

To identify the most consistent relationships among psychological variables and physical activity in youth (ages 11-21 years), 20 articles on depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, self-concept, hostility, anger, intellectual functioning, and psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Physical activity was consistently related to improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, depressive symptoms, and anxiety/stress. The effect sizes were +.12, -.15, and -.38 for self-esteem/self-concept, stress/anxiety, and depression, respectively. The evidence for hostility/anger and academic achievement was inconclusive. No negative effects of physical activity were reported. The literature suggests that physical activity in youth is psychologically beneficial. More research is needed to confirm previous findings. Adolescents should engage in moderate or vigorous aerobic activity approximately three times per week for a total of at least 60 minutes per week.

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Chung Gun Lee, Youngtae Cho and Seunghyun Yoo

Purpose:

Suicide is the leading cause of death among Korean adolescents. This study investigates the cross-sectional relations of physical activity with suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents, simultaneously considering previously reported risk factors of suicide such as depression, stress, and body image.

Methods:

This study used the 2007 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Four hundred middle schools and 400 high schools in Korea were monitored, and 74,698 students completed the questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between physical activity and suicidal ideation and attempts, progressively adjusting for body image, depression and stress.

Results:

After controlling for body image, stress, and depression, the significant relationship between physical activity and suicidal ideation disappeared, and the only remaining relationship was a positive relationship between frequent vigorous physical activity and suicide attempts. No sex differences were found after adjusting for all the variables.

Conclusion:

Unlike the general expectation that physical activity protects adolescents from suicidal behaviors, the results from this study suggest that physical activity does not have protective effect. Korean adolescents who perform frequent vigorous physical activities are more likely to attempt suicide.

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Catherine M. Sabiston, Rachel Jewett, Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Mathieu Belanger, Jennifer Brunet, Erin O’Loughlin and Jennifer O’Loughlin

The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = −.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.

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Hairul A. Hashim, Golok Freddy and Ali Rosmatunisah

Background:

The current study was undertaken to examine the associations between self-determination, exercise habit, anxiety, depression, stress, and academic achievement among adolescents aged 13 and 14 years in eastern Malaysia.

Methods:

The sample consisted of 750 secondary school students (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 0.49). Participants completed self-report measures of exercise behavioral regulation, negative affect, and exercise habit strength. Midyear exam results were used as an indicator of academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.

Results:

The results of structural equation modeling revealed a close model fit for the hypothesized model, which indicates that higher levels of self-determination were positively associated with habituated exercise behavior. In turn, exercise habit strength fostered academic achievement and buffered the debilitative effect of stress, depression, and anxiety on student academic performance. The analysis of model invariance revealed a nonsignificant difference between male and female subjects.

Conclusion:

The findings support the notion that habituated exercise fosters academic performance. In addition, we found that habituated exercise buffers the combined effects of stress, anxiety and depression on academic performance. The finding also supports the roles of self-determination in promoting exercise habituation.

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Preeti D. Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski and Richard K. Shields

H-reflex depression (diminution of amplitude after a conditioning stimulus) is mediated presynaptically and therefore can help distinguish central versus peripheral mechanisms of fatigue. We examined the effects of a dynamic exercise protocol on H-reflex depression using two conditioning methods: homonymous conditioning (paired-pulse tibial nerve stimulation); and heteronymous conditioning (common peroneal nerve stimulation). Ten subjects performed dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle through 30° ankle range of motion. The concentric phase required a target force of 10% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and the eccentric phase force target was 80% MVIC. Fatigue persisted for >20 min after cessation of the exercise. Compared with prefatigue values, the dynamic fatigue protocol did not increase presynaptic inhibition after either homonymous or heteronymous conditioning. Peak to peak amplitude of unconditioned H-reflexes was likewise unchanged despite a long term depression of muscle force (long duration fatigue). These results suggest that persistent fatigue after dynamic exercise is attributed to muscle changes and not altered spinal mechanisms.