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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

energy turnover in a short period of time, which when combined with incomplete recovery periods places considerable demands on short-term energy systems. 3 – 6 For example, a rapid decrease in energy availability via phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate and anaerobic glycolysis, and the

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

. Further research in Australian football is warranted to calculate energy availability, which, in athletes, more precisely evaluates energy expenditure from exercise in the context of energy intake ( Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). In the current investigation, carbohydrate intake for both elite and sub

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

/snacks and there was no planned lunch. Eating CHOs every 3–4 hr helps increase energy availability and fuel the muscle demands of sustained moderate–high intensity training ( Hawley & Burke, 1997 ). Eating at least five meals per day is associated with the highest intake of energy and CHOs ( Kerver et

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Sports Physiol Perform . 2019 ; 14 ( 4 ): 536 – 539 . doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 30300038 17. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in individuals with a disability: Implications for

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Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, Taina Rantanen, Eeva Aartolahti, Anne Viljanen, Mirja Hirvensalo and Merja Rantakokko

. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69 ( 8 ), 973 – 979 . doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt199 Schrager , M.A. , Schrack , J.A. , Simonsick , E.M. , & Ferrucci , L. ( 2014 ). The association between energy availability and physical activity in older adults

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

Metabolic Rate; EA = Energy Availability; PAL = Physical Activity Level. a Demographics is derived from baseline data. b Reported values have been converted from original form for comparison purposes. c Data represent those completing food data only. d Median (interquartile range) is reported for Burrows

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

suggest that increased nutritional intake, reduction in excessive exercise, or a combination of both remedied low energy availability and facilitated strength improvements. In the full sample, VO 2 max and vertical jump did not significantly differ from admission to discharge. VO 2 max was measured via

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

this observation, a recent case study in an elite female endurance athlete demonstrated an increase in LBM when protein intake was increased to 2.6 g·kg BM −1 ·day −1 during ∼2 weeks of reduced energy availability ( Haakonssen et al., 2013 ). Taken together, in terms of practical implications, these

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

, M. , Vlahovich , N. , Hughes , D. , Appaneal , R. , Burke , L.M. , Lundy , B. , . . . Waddington , G. ( 2018 ). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

correct low energy availability, poor iron status, or other nutrient deficiencies as these may alter performance of some protocols and/or the response to supplements. Note that vegetarians may respond differently to supplemental ingredients that are low in their diets (e.g., creatine, carnitine, and b