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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

suppress menstrual function, and in this study, one third of women athletes reported amenorrhea in the last 12 months. It is possible that this figure is an underestimation because women using oral contraceptives were not excluded from the study. Low energy availability and disruption of menstrual

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

.0b013e3182a20ee7 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a20ee7 23820563 8. Schaal K , Tiollier E , Le Meur Y , Casazza G , Hausswirth C . Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training . Scand J Med Sci Sport . 2017 ; 27 ( 9 ): 925 – 934 . doi:10

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James R. Broatch, David J. Bishop and Shona Halson

energy turnover in a short period of time, which when combined with incomplete recovery periods places considerable demands on short-term energy systems. 3 – 6 For example, a rapid decrease in energy availability via phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate and anaerobic glycolysis, and the

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

negatively ( Armstrong et al., 1985 ). However, the effect of slight hypohydration on performance seems trivial at temperatures of ∼8 °C (Day 8; Murray, 2007 ). Regardless, the loss of body mass was not different between groups, and the energy availability was standardized across groups. Surprisingly

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Sports Physiol Perform . 2019 ; 14 ( 4 ): 536 – 539 . doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 30300038 17. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in individuals with a disability: Implications for

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Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, Taina Rantanen, Eeva Aartolahti, Anne Viljanen, Mirja Hirvensalo and Merja Rantakokko

-related differences in daily patterns of physical activity . Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69 ( 8 ), 973 – 979 . doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt199 Schrager , M.A. , Schrack , J.A. , Simonsick , E.M. , & Ferrucci , L. ( 2014 ). The association between energy

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

correct low energy availability, poor iron status, or other nutrient deficiencies as these may alter performance of some protocols and/or the response to supplements. Note that vegetarians may respond differently to supplemental ingredients that are low in their diets (e.g., creatine, carnitine, and b

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

suggest that increased nutritional intake, reduction in excessive exercise, or a combination of both remedied low energy availability and facilitated strength improvements. In the full sample, VO 2 max and vertical jump did not significantly differ from admission to discharge. VO 2 max was measured via

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

, M. , Vlahovich , N. , Hughes , D. , Appaneal , R. , Burke , L.M. , Lundy , B. , . . . Waddington , G. ( 2018 ). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

this observation, a recent case study in an elite female endurance athlete demonstrated an increase in LBM when protein intake was increased to 2.6 g·kg BM −1 ·day −1 during ∼2 weeks of reduced energy availability ( Haakonssen et al., 2013 ). Taken together, in terms of practical implications, these