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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

/snacks and there was no planned lunch. Eating CHOs every 3–4 hr helps increase energy availability and fuel the muscle demands of sustained moderate–high intensity training ( Hawley & Burke, 1997 ). Eating at least five meals per day is associated with the highest intake of energy and CHOs ( Kerver et

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Sports Physiol Perform . 2019 ; 14 ( 4 ): 536 – 539 . doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 30300038 17. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in individuals with a disability: Implications for

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

suggest that increased nutritional intake, reduction in excessive exercise, or a combination of both remedied low energy availability and facilitated strength improvements. In the full sample, VO 2 max and vertical jump did not significantly differ from admission to discharge. VO 2 max was measured via

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

Metabolic Rate; EA = Energy Availability; PAL = Physical Activity Level. a Demographics is derived from baseline data. b Reported values have been converted from original form for comparison purposes. c Data represent those completing food data only. d Median (interquartile range) is reported for Burrows

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

correct low energy availability, poor iron status, or other nutrient deficiencies as these may alter performance of some protocols and/or the response to supplements. Note that vegetarians may respond differently to supplemental ingredients that are low in their diets (e.g., creatine, carnitine, and b

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

, M. , Vlahovich , N. , Hughes , D. , Appaneal , R. , Burke , L.M. , Lundy , B. , . . . Waddington , G. ( 2018 ). Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 52

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

this observation, a recent case study in an elite female endurance athlete demonstrated an increase in LBM when protein intake was increased to 2.6 g·kg BM −1 ·day −1 during ∼2 weeks of reduced energy availability ( Haakonssen et al., 2013 ). Taken together, in terms of practical implications, these

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

composition while maintaining adequate energy availability for health and heavy training load • General support for training sessions and recovery between sessions, including strategic timing of nutrient intake around sessions • Where desired, periodic targeted low-CHO availability training to stimulate

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

,500 mg/day and 1,500 to 2,000 IU vitamin D are recommended to optimize bone health in athletes with low energy availability or menstrual dysfunction ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). Abbreviations: RDA = recommended dietary allowance; UL = upper limit; UVB = ultraviolet B. * See Larson-Meyer et al. ( 2018 ) for

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures and anterior cruciate ligament tears. These factors can include anatomical differences, altered biomechanics, and hormonal changes. Girls may also experience lower quadriceps and hip adduction strength and are susceptible to the female athlete triad (poor energy