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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

, we acknowledge that randomized control trials incorporating larger sample sizes are now required to verify any potential metabolic or ergogenic effect of CHO feeding during competitive match play. In addition, glycogen use in specific muscles (eg, gastrocnemius vs vastus lateralis), muscle fiber

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

-intensity aerobic exercise. 1 Typical ergogenic doses of 3 to 6 mg·kg −1 ingested 30 to 90 minutes prior to exercise have been shown to result in performance increases of up to 6% in events lasting from a few minutes to several hours. 1 The key mechanism by which caffeine is believed to exert its effect is

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Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet and Jamie F. Burr

ability of muscle to work under similar conditions. Work supporting the use of IPC as an ergogenic technique has primarily used endurance 6 – 9 and repeated-sprint 10 – 12 exercise models. With some evidence suggesting that IPC alters metabolism in a way that may be beneficial in endurance sport

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

–18 years Adolescent ( n  = 26) 55 8.4 ± 1.6 153 273 ± 54 5.1 ± 1.1 78 ± 15 1.5 ± 0.3 69 ± 17 30 ± 5 7-Day diary Aerenhouts et al. ( 2008 ) Carbohydrate The ergogenic potential of carbohydrate availability for sprint athletes is poorly understood. There is evidence that maintenance of an extremely low

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Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes and Stephen R. Stannard

Pomegranate extract (POMx), a powder concentrate made from the peel, membrane, and pith of pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) ( Seeram et al., 2008 ), has emerged as a potential ergogenic aid in endurance sport performance ( Trexler et al., 2014 ). The supplement was first investigated in

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

were different between these studies and ours, these results suggest that CHO mouth rinse does not seem to promote ergogenic effects in short duration and high-intensity exercises. In contrast, one study 17 showed different results than ours and others. 13 – 16 Phillips et al 17 found an improvement

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Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

and Chemical Toxicology, 50 , 3826 – 3832 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.006 10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.006 Vernec , A. , Stear , S.J. , Burke , L.M. , & Castell , L.M. ( 2013 ). A–Z of nutritional supplements: Dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and

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Eric T. Trexler and Abbie E. Smith-Ryan

Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

to exercise, improving brain performance, decreasing delayed onset muscle soreness or pain, reducing injury severity, enhancing recovery from injury, reducing gastrointestinal problems, and decreasing respiratory tract infection illness load. For the most part, these effects are not ergogenic, but

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Fábio J. Lanferdini, Rodrigo R. Bini, Bruno M. Baroni, Kelli D. Klein, Felipe P. Carpes and Marco A. Vaz

wavelength or light source 32 or combination of wavelengths and light sources. 34 Therefore, these aspects should be clarified in future studies. After that, the decisive step will be an actual sport-setting test, such as during a cycling race, to identify the use of LLLT as an ergogenic agent in elite