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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

optimal performance improvement. As we were more specifically interested in non-expert players (e.g., intermediate or regional players) who have not developed an “optimal” mental representation of the actions to perform ( Frank et al., 2014 ; Jeannerod, 2001 ), it is possible that they would beneficiate

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Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung and James H. Rimmer

Physical activity programming for children and youth with physical, developmental, or sensory disabilities is an important responsibility and challenge for experts in adapted physical activity or education, pediatric rehabilitation, and public health ( Rimmer & Rowland, 2008 ). The childhood and

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Duane Knudson

The evaluation of candidates for faculty appointments, tenure and promotion, grants, and scholarship awards is based on review from peers in their discipline. This expert judgment has been the principal mechanism or gold standard of evaluating research for over 100 years ( Belter, 2015 ; Bornmann

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Melissa Hunfalvay and Nicholas Murray

, & Williams, 1999 ), cognition ( Williams & Grant, 1999 ), and long-term memory ( Reina et al., 2004 ). Past researchers have found that experts compared with novices have fewer fixations of longer duration (e.g.,  Perez, Mendez, Manzano, & Collado, 2013 ; Piras, Pierantozzi, & Squatrito, 2014 ), which

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Behrouz Abdoli, James Hardy, Javad F. Riyahi and Alireza Farsi

for verbal cues), the empirically supported kinematic principles of basketball free throws, as well as discussion with expert basketball coaches. As a result, participants assigned to be motivational self-talk group used the phrase “I will be successful” whereas their instructional self

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Sue L. McPherson

This study examined how conceptual knowledge concerning batting preparation develops with playing experience and how this knowledge influences decision making during a simulated game situation. Twelve experts, their coach, and 12 novices viewed a half-inning of a videotaped collegiate baseball game and assumed the role of the fourth batter. Propositional-type analysis of subjects' think-aloud protocols revealed experts' conceptual representation of batting preparation enabled them to search through a highly restricted problem space, which facilitated the development of sophisticated condition-action rules used to solve the problem. Experts' rules were more tactical, refined, and associated compared to novices' rules. Experts were different from novices in what attributes were considered important to solving the problem. Experts generated self-regulatory strategies to update, check, and modify their predictions of pitcher characteristics. This study provides initial evidence of the nature of adult expert sport performers' conceptual knowledge underlying decision making in sport situations.

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Nicola Taylor, David Giles, Micha Panáčková, James Mitchell, Joel Chidley and Nick Draper

developed using an iterative 2-part process consisting of (1) consultation and development with expert climbing coaches and (2) reliability and agreement with existing quantitative measures. The process was comparable to that used by Chidley et al 23 to explore characteristics that explain performance in

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Desmond McEwan, Bruno D. Zumbo, Mark A. Eys and Mark R. Beauchamp

teamwork. Once a preliminary questionnaire was created, we sought to examine the content and substantive aspects of validity by consulting with, and obtaining feedback from, the target population (i.e., team sport coaches and athletes), as well as experts within the specific field of study (i.e., those

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Insook Kim and Bomna Ko

With regard to teacher expertise, experience plays an essential, but insufficient role. According to Siedentop and Eldar ( 1989 ), teacher expertise depends on the context and subject matter. Teachers can develop expertise through extensive teaching experiences in specific contexts (e.g., experts

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Cara Shearer, Hannah R. Goss, Lowri C. Edwards, Richard J. Keegan, Zoe R. Knowles, Lynne M. Boddy, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Lawrence Foweather

share research and express definitions and interpretations. Working with these experts allowed access to definitions produced both inside and outside of the traditional academic publishing distribution channels. In tandem, the references of a recent systematic review of definitions, foundations, and