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Kyung-Min Kim, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Jay Hertel


Focal ankle-joint cooling (FAJC) has been shown to increase Hoffmann (H) reflex amplitudes of select leg muscles while subjects lie prone, but it is unknown whether the neurophysiological cooling effects persist in standing.


To assess the effects of FAJC on H-reflexes of the soleus and fibularis longus during 3 body positions (prone, bipedal, and unipedal stances) in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI).






15 young adults with CAI (9 male, 6 female) and 15 healthy controls.


All subjects received both FAJC and sham treatments on separate days in a randomized order. FAJC was accomplished by applying a 1.5-L plastic bag filled with crushed ice to the ankle for 20 min. Sham treatment involved room-temperature candy corn.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximum amplitudes of H-reflexes and motor (M) waves were recorded while subjects lay prone and then stood in quiet bipedal and unipedal stances before and immediately after each treatment. Primary outcome measures were Hmax:Mmax ratios for the soleus and fibularis longus. Three-factor (group × treatment condition × time) repeated-measures ANOVAs and Fisher LSD tests were performed for statistical analyses.


Significant interactions of treatment condition by time for prone Hmax:Mmax ratios were found in the soleus (P = .001) and fibularis longus (P = .003). In both muscles, prone Hmax:Mmax ratios moderately increased after FAJC but not after sham treatment. The CAI and healthy groups responded similarly to FAJC. In contrast, there were no significant interactions or main effects in the bipedal and unipedal stances in either muscle (P > .05).


FAJC moderately increased H-reflex amplitudes of the soleus and fibularis longus while subjects were prone but not during bipedal or unipedal standing. These results were not different between groups with and without CAI.

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Áine MacNamara, Angela Button and Dave Collins

MacNamara, Button, & Collins (under review) proposed that if individuals are to fulfill their potential they must possess and systematically develop a specific set of skills (termed Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence or PCDEs) that allow them to interact effectively with the developmental opportunities they are afforded. Given the complexity of the developmental pathway, it may well be that different skills are needed at different stages of development and across different performance domains. Twenty-four elite participants from team sports, individual sports, and music were purposefully sampled from different domains and interviewed on their experiences of their own pathways to excellence. Results suggested that although PCDEs were important throughout development, the manner by which they were deployed depended on stage, domain, and the characteristics of the individual performer. These findings support proposals to systematically incorporate PCDEs into TID practices because these may be the key feature in maintaining progress toward excellence.

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Fernando Santos, Daniel Gould and Leisha Strachan

Research on positive youth development (PYD) through sport has provided valuable insight on how youth sport coaches’ may facilitate positive developmental outcomes such as leadership, respect, and teamwork ( Lacroix, Camiré, & Trudel, 2008 ; Trottier & Robitaille, 2014 ). Several descriptive and

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Ka Man Leung and Pak-Kwong Chung

environment facilitators and social environments would have a positive effect on walking for transportation and recreation, whereas physical environment barriers would have a negative effect. Methods Study Design This cross-sectional study involved 450 older adults registered at local Neighborhood Elderly

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John H. Hollman, Tyler A. Berling, Ellen O. Crum, Kelsie M. Miller, Brent T. Simmons and James W. Youdas

extension when gluteal muscle strength is impaired. Lewis et al 11 subsequently recommended that correcting abnormal movement patterns may facilitate a reduction in anterior hip joint stresses. Cueing strategies used by rehabilitation providers may play a critical role in assuring proper muscle recruitment

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Esther Casas, Arturo Justes and Carlos Calvo

joint and in all possible positions it can adopt. In rehabilitation of severe CNS pathological conditions, such as cerebral palsy or cerebrovascular accidents, different reflex methods (Vöjta 1 and Brunkow 2 methods) have been used to facilitate muscle activity. These methods achieve coordinated

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David Ekholm

policy (as well as in scientific discourse) as an arena where social relations can be formed and social capital developed, in turn facilitating social inclusion and integration ( Coalter, 2007 ; Collins & Haudenhuyse, 2015 ; Morgan, 2013 ; Spracklen, Long, & Hylton, 2015 ; Verhagen & Boonstra, 2014

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Damian Haslett and Brett Smith

understanding of how to access PA information, it is important to include not only the voices of people with disabilities but also their carers (e.g., parents, teachers) as well as facilitators of disability PA opportunities. Given that information flows through multiple people and organizations, a better

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Lijuan Wang

International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, because it is better aligned to the morality of inclusion, in which personal restriction interplays with the social settings ( Reindal, 2008 , 2009 ). Therefore, this model was applied to identify the factors that facilitated or inhibited the

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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson and M. Blair Evans

physical activity motivation in sport programs ( Côté, Turnnidge, & Evans, 2014 ). Given the prevalence of group contexts in sport and the importance of the social environment for motivating youth 1 participants, understanding and enhancing group dynamics is critical to facilitate youths’ participation in