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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

sprints, euglycemia and improved fat oxidation were again observed ( Baur et al., 2016 ). Serum glucose was 20% lower prior to exercise, compared to a sucrose/glucose supplement. Of note, consumption of starch at rates of 30 and 60 g/h was associated with nausea and abdominal cramps. Digestive symptoms

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger and Jamie Stanley

.55 (−0.98 to −0.12) b  GE, % 19.8 (0.9) 19.8 (0.8) 0.08 (−0.22 to 0.39) 19.4 (1.3) 20.2 (1.0) 0.55 (0.13 to 0.96) b  EE, kcal·min −1 15.3 (1.7) 15.4 (1.8) −0.16 (−0.22 to 0.22) 15.2 (1.3) 15.3 (1.5) 0.05 (−0.13 to 0.22)  Fat oxidation, g·min −1 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0.2) −0.21 (−0.77 to 0.35) 0.6 (0.2) 0.5 (0

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

analysis • ↓ performance • ↑ d -βHB and total fat oxidation during exercise • ↓ plasma glucose and total CHO oxidation during exercise Rodger et al 19 12 highly trained male cyclists Ketone salts (11,700 mg) with sugar-free lemonade 20 min before and during exercise, after a fast ≥2.5 h Taste

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Julien Tripette, Haruka Murakami, Hidemi Hara, Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Harumi Ohno, Nobuyuki Miyatake and Motohiko Miyachi

against noncommunicable diseases ( Schrader et al., 2013 , 2014 ). In addition, caffeine consumed before a submaximal exercise has been linked to greater energy deficit and fat oxidation, suggesting that caffeine could help in weight maintenance interventions ( Schubert et al., 2014 ). Thus, if these

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Arthur H. Bossi, Wouter P. Timmerman and James G. Hopker

estimates. 6 Accordingly, Kipp et al 6 recommended that researchers use Péronnet and Massicotte 7 for its meticulous account of the energy provided from glucose and fat oxidation, based on the latest chemical and physical data available at their time. However, the extent to which different EE equations

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.D. , Myers , S.D. , Blacker , S.D. , & Willems , M.E. ( 2015 ). New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115 ( 11 ), 2357 – 2365 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 Cooper , R

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Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne and Eléonor Riesco

, which is less intense than SIT, favors fat oxidation to a higher extent than SIT ( Astorino & Schubert, 2018 ). Moreover, treadmill training protocols seem better than those designed on an ergocycle to reduce visceral FM ( Maillard, Pereira, & Boisseau, 2018 ; Wewege et al., 2017 ). The HIIT protocol

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

concentrations of calciotropic hormones, which in turn could reduce lipogenesis and increase lipolysis, thereby increasing fatty acid availability for fat oxidation ( Gonzalez et al., 2012 ; Zemel, 2004 ). However, we did not measure the calcium content of our supplementation and we also did not measure the

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

number of physiological characteristics have been found to differentiate professional senior road cyclists from elite amateur cyclists. These include a higher second ventilatory threshold expressed as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, a greater reliance on fat oxidation at high power outputs

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

neurotransmitters. 10 Beyond those effects on the central nervous system, it has also been suggested that high caffeine doses spares glycogen utilization by increasing fat oxidation and boosts β-endorphins and catecholamine release. 11 Furthermore, caffeine has evidenced improvements in force production by