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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

concentrations of calciotropic hormones, which in turn could reduce lipogenesis and increase lipolysis, thereby increasing fatty acid availability for fat oxidation ( Gonzalez et al., 2012 ; Zemel, 2004 ). However, we did not measure the calcium content of our supplementation and we also did not measure the

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.D. , Myers , S.D. , Blacker , S.D. , & Willems , M.E. ( 2015 ). New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115 ( 11 ), 2357 – 2365 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 10.1007/s00421-015-3215-8 Cooper , R

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Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne and Eléonor Riesco

, which is less intense than SIT, favors fat oxidation to a higher extent than SIT ( Astorino & Schubert, 2018 ). Moreover, treadmill training protocols seem better than those designed on an ergocycle to reduce visceral FM ( Maillard, Pereira, & Boisseau, 2018 ; Wewege et al., 2017 ). The HIIT protocol

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

. 11033978 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801374 23. Astorino TA , Schubert MM , Palumbo E , Stirling D , Mcmillan DW . Effect of two doses of interval training on maximal fat oxidation in sedentary women . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2013 ; 45 ( 10 ): 1878 – 1886 . PubMed ID: 23531715 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e

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Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque and Luis Peñailillo

neurotransmitters. 10 Beyond those effects on the central nervous system, it has also been suggested that high caffeine doses spares glycogen utilization by increasing fat oxidation and boosts β-endorphins and catecholamine release. 11 Furthermore, caffeine has evidenced improvements in force production by

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

) compared with the PLA trial (2.41 [0.53] g·min −1 ; P  < .0001); however, during the WAT trial (2.82 [0.48] g·min −1 ), carbohydrate oxidation was similar to the 2 other trials ( P  = .088 vs PLA; P  = .148 vs CHO). Fat oxidation was greater in the PLA trial (0.52 [0.23] g·min −1 ) compared with the CHO

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

number of physiological characteristics have been found to differentiate professional senior road cyclists from elite amateur cyclists. These include a higher second ventilatory threshold expressed as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, a greater reliance on fat oxidation at high power outputs

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 42 ( 10 ), 1031 – 1035 . PubMed ID: 28750585 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 10.1139/apnm-2016-0641 Peart , D.J. , Siegler , J.C. , & Vince

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

availability ( Burke et al., 2017 ). Meanwhile, both dietary approaches were associated with better race outcomes than chronic (3.5 week) exposure to a ketogenic low CHO, high-fat diet, despite its achievement of substantial (∼2.5 ×) increases in muscle fat oxidation ( Burke et al., 2017 ). This contrasts with

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

affect fat oxidation and/or glycogen degradation at prolonged submaximal intensities. Further research is needed to elucidate how physiologic adaptations differ between CFE and POL, and from a practical perspective how this could impact their effect on events >5 km. Differences between CFE and POL could