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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

higher reliance on fat oxidation, greater metabolic stress, and cellular adaptation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ). Although careful integration of such strategies can enhance adaptation and performance ( Marquet et al., 2016 ), the potential implications on athlete health are relatively unknown. Accordingly

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

). Acute exercise increases resistance to oxidative stress in young but not older adults . Age, 36 ( 6 ), 9727 . PubMed ID: 25380675 doi: 10.1007/s11357-014-9727-z O’Malley , T. , Myette-Cote , E. , Durrer , C. , & Little , J.P. ( 2017 ). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

. Despite the need for high carbohydrate intakes, performing selected training sessions in a glycogen-depleted state can promote training adaptations, such as increased fat oxidation ( Bartlett et al., 2015 ; Philip et al., 2012 ), which may be a favorable physiological adaptation during base

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

relatively unlimited pool size and capacity to support exercise at intensities up to ∼75–80% VO 2 peak. However, it should also be noted that most ultramarathon runners already have a high capacity for fat oxidation, regardless of dietary background. Furthermore, although targeted adaptation to a high

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

loss is the creation of an energy imbalance resulting in a net energy expenditure, and a number of supplements have been proposed to promote fat loss through a variety of mechanisms including increased fat oxidation and thermogenic effects (increased energy expenditure) ( Jeukendrup & Randell, 2011

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

/or lipolytic-enhancing agent Small-to-trivial effect ( Jurgens et al., 2012 ) α-Lipoic acid No clear role, but possible antioxidant Small-to-trivial effect ( Kucukgoncu et al., 2017 ) Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) Changes membrane fluidity favoring enhanced fat oxidation Small-to-trivial effect ( Onakpoya et

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

performance. 123 , 124 Although well-trained athletes have an enhanced capacity for fat oxidation, their ability to use their relatively large fat stores as an exercise substrate is clearly not maximized because it can be further upregulated by switching to a low-CHO, high-fat diet (LCHF). Indeed, short

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

 al., 2017 ), although they are used in real-world practice ( Stellingwerff, 2012 ). Nonketogenic low-CHO high-fat (NK-LCHF) diet • Dietary plan in which CHO availability is chronically (days/weeks/months) maintained below muscle CHO needs to promote adaptations favoring fat oxidation, but with sufficient