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Shamsi S. Monfared, Gershon Tenenbaum, Jonathan R. Folstein and K. Anders Ericsson

Feedback is critical for multiple aspects of performance in sports and everyday tasks. One fundamental role of feedback is to allow anticipation of the outcome of an action. Anticipation requires athletes to pay attention to internal (e.g., sensory information) or external (e.g., opponent’s body

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K. Michelle Hume, Garry L. Martin, Patricia Gonzalez, Clayton Cracklen and Sheldon Genthon

Behavioral coaching techniques consisting of instructions, a self-monitoring checklist, and coach feedback were examined at freestyle practice sessions with three female prenovice figure skaters. These techniques were compared to normal coaching procedures for their effects on the frequency of jumps and spins performed, the number of times a skater practiced a routine to music, and the amount of time spent engaging in off-task behaviors during 45-min free-skating sessions. Within a reversal-replication design, the behavioral coaching techniques produced considerable improvement on all dependent measures. Social validation measures indicated that the procedures improved quality of skating and were rated positively by the coach and by two of the three skaters.

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A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver

themes, which as it happens are well correlated with our own specific areas of research expertise. Next, keywords were generated to identify papers of interest that would fit under each broad research theme (e.g., motor learning: instruction, practice, feedback) and formed the basis of our search

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Rita Byde and Bruce A. McClenaghan

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selected types of feedback on the performance of an anticipation timing task by moderately mentally retarded children. Seventeen children, aged 10 to 16 years and classified as moderately mentally retarded (IQ = 44, range 32-54) participated as subjects for this investigation. Subjects were required to perform a key press response in anticipation to the arrival of a stimulus light. Data were analyzed utilizing a 4(treatment) × 2(gender) × 3(group) analysis of variance on the dependent variables. No significant main or interactive effects were found. Several possible explanations may account for these results including, (a) age range of the subjects may have biased the results, (b) the moderately retarded child may have had insufficient motor skills to successfully perform the tasks, (c) the personality characteristics of the subjects prevented them from perceiving their impact on performance, and/or (d) the type of feedback provided may not have been appropriately interpreted by the subjects.

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Monica Fabian Lounsbery and Tom Sharpe

This study, conducted within an undergraduate Methods of Teaching Physical Education and School-Based Practice Teaching course, used an AB maintenance-across-participants design to (a) sequentially describe preservice teachers’ (N = 4) instructional interactions with students, (b) examine the effects of sequential feedback on the sequential nature of preservice teachers’ instructional interactions with students, and (c) assess the influence of differential sequential preservice teacher instructional interactions on student skill practice. Instructional interaction sequential data indicated that explicit teacher instruction and refinement were sequentially connected to student-appropriate skill practice, while general teacher instruction was sequentially connected to student-inappropriate skill practice. The data indicated that the sequential feedback protocol (a) consistently increased the incidence of refinement and explicit instruction within preservice teacher sequential instructional interactions for all participants, and (b) preservice teacher sequential pattern changes positively influenced the incidence of student-appropriate skill practice. This study also supports a strong relationship between explicit instruction and refinement and student-appropriate skill practice. Implications for further research into the sequential behavior determinants of the teaching and learning process in situational context are discussed last.

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Laura Yan Lan and Diane L. Gill

The influence of self-efficacy on physiological arousal and self-reported anxiety was examined in the first phase of this study. All 32 undergraduate females in the study performed five trials of both an easy task and a difficult task, with half of them performing the easy task first and half performing the difficult task first. A manipulation check revealed that the easy task clearly elicited higher self-efficacy than the difficult task. Individuals reported lower cognitive and somatic anxiety and higher self-confidence, as assessed with the CSAI-2, and had lower heart-rate increases when performing the easy (high-efficacious) task. After the subjects finished both the easy and difficult tasks, half of them were given a cognitive feedback manipulation suggesting that elevated arousal levels were typical responses of good competitors under stress. Contrary to predictions, the manipulation did not induce higher self-efficacy and the manipulation group did not differ from the no-manipulation group on self-reported anxiety scores or heart rates. The findings support Bandura's contention that self-efficacy mediates arousal changes and demonstrate the influence of self-efficacy on multidimensional anxiety measures, but fail to demonstrate any influence of a cognitive feedback manipulation on self-efficacy or subsequent stress responses.

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Michael Joch, Mathias Hegele, Heiko Maurer, Hermann Müller and Lisa K. Maurer

Motor learning can be monitored by observing the development of neural correlates of error processing. Among these neural correlates, the error- and feedback-related negativity (Ne/ERN and FRN) represent error processing mechanisms. While the Ne/ERN is more related to error prediction, the FRN is found after an error is manifested. The questions the current study strives to answer are: What information is needed by the system to make error predictions and how is this represented by the Ne/ERN and FRN in a complex motor task? We reduced the information and increased the difficulty level for the prediction in a semivirtual throwing task and found no Ne/ERN but a large FRN when the action result was finally observed (hitting or missing a target). We assume that uncertainty for error prediction was too high (either due to insufficient information or due to lacking prerequisites for prediction), such that error processing had to be mainly based on feedback. The finding is in line with the reinforcement theory of learning, after which Ne/ERN and FRN should behave complementary.

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Mark Byra and Mary C. Marks

In the reciprocal style of teaching learners are paired, and as one practices the task, the other provides immediate feedback. This study examined the effect of pairing learners in the reciprocal style by ability (high, low, and mixed) and by companionship (friend and nonacquaintance) on provision of feedback and perceived comfort while learning motor skills. Thirty-two students between 9 and 12 years of age practiced soccer juggling during a 25-minute lesson and soccer dribbling during another 25-minute lesson, in both of which they were paired for similar versus different ability and for friend versus nonaquaintance. After each lesson, the students were asked how comfortable they felt giving and receiving feedback. The results showed that the observers gave specific feedback more frequently to friends than nonacquaintances, and that the doers felt more comfortable receiving feedback from friends than nonacquaintances. Learner ability level did not affect the amount of specific feedback provided by the observer or the doer comfort in receiving feedback. This study supports several claims set forth by Mosston and Ashworth (1986) for the reciprocal style of teaching.

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Digby Elliott, Kathryn L. Ricker and James Lyons

Fifteen participants practiced a two-target sequential aiming movement with either full vision of the movement environment, vision during flight, or vision while in contact with the first target. After 100 acquisition trials, participants performed a retention test in their own condition and then were transferred to each of the other two vision conditions. Both performance and kinematic data indicated that rather than becoming less dependent on visual information with practice, subjects learned to adjust their movement trajectories to use the visual information available in their particular vision condition. Although transfer to a degraded vision condition disrupted performance, when vision was augmented participants quickly adjusted their aiming trajectories to use the added information. The findings suggest that at least part of learning involves the development of rapid and efficient procedures for processing afferent information, including visual response-produced feedback.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Thomas G. Bowman and Jessica L. Barrett

Clinical education provides the backbone for the socialization process for athletic trainers. It is the chance for students to engage in the role, within a real-time learning environment that allows for not only the adoption of knowledge, skills, and critical decision making, but also the profession’s foundational behaviors of professional practice. Recent criticisms of the current education model, in which the degree is conferred, center on the lack of critical thinking and confidence in clinical practice for newly-credentialed athletic trainers, as many suggest there is concern for the abilities of students to transition to practice smoothly. We offer three areas of focus for clinical education experiences for students (autonomy, mentorship, and feedback), believing this could support the development of independent thinking and confidence in skills. Our discussions are focused on the evidence available, as well as personal experiences as educators and program administrators.