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Timothy C. Howle, James A. Dimmock, Nikos Ntoumanis, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Cassandra Sparks and Ben Jackson

.34 for skewness and 1.62 for kurtosis. As such, data imputation and variable transformation were not necessary. The sample of 150 participants ( n male  = 71 and n female  = 79) who were retained for analyses (see Responses to Manipulations subsection) were split across the four conditions as follows

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Angela Papadimitriou and Mark Perry

imputation. Some of the potential methodological bias was due to unavoidable issues, such as the inability to blind participants and health care providers to the intervention. However, there were also some avoidable risks of bias. One such risk of bias arose from the use of exercise in the intervention group

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Koren L. Fisher, Bruce A. Reeder, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Nigel L. Ashworth, Punam Pahwa, Nazmi Sari, M. Suzanne Sheppard, Christopher A. Shields and Karen E. Chad

imputation of the intention-to-treat approach ( Hedecker & Gibbons, 1997 ; Kivitz et al., 2008 ; Pauler, McCoy, & Moinpour, 2003 ). The results of both approaches were compared, and minimal differences were found between the two. Results A total of 172 participants (46 men and 126 women) were randomized at

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Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi

identified. Variables of the motivation, commitment, and social capital scales were checked, and less than 10% were missing. Therefore, single imputation based on the regression coefficient was used to enter missing values. All other variables remained in their original state with missing values. The

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Barbara E. Bechter, James A. Dimmock, Joshua L. Howard, Peter R. Whipp and Ben Jackson

, NY). Missing data (which comprised 0.5% of all cases) were missing completely at random; a Little chi-square test was nonsignificant, χ 2 (1,246) = 1,320.35, p  = .07, and missing data were subsequently replaced using the program’s single imputation function. Subsequently, standard confirmatory

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Matthew Juravich and Brian M. Mills

AR(1) autoregressive errors. This approach allows imputation of the first observation in the series, despite the autoregressive nature of the model, which provides more useful data in time series that are relatively short in length, as the ones we present here. Yearly trend and indicator variables

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Natasha Schranz, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Richard Tyler, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

( 18 ): 2938 – 2940 . PubMed ID: 28645171 doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btx364 10.1093/bioinformatics/btx364 45. Kowarik A , Templ M . Imputation with the R package VIM . J Stat Softw . 2016 ; 74 ( 7 ): 1 – 16 . doi:10.18637/jss.v074.i07 10.18637/jss.v074.i07 46. The World Bank . GINI index

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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Chalchisa Abdeta, Patrick Abi Nader, Ade F. Adeniyi, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, Dolores S. Andrade Tenesaca, Jasmin Bhawra, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Greet Cardon, Chen-Kang Chang, Christine Delisle Nyström, Yolanda Demetriou, Catherine E. Draper, Lowri Edwards, Arunas Emeljanovas, Aleš Gába, Karla I. Galaviz, Silvia A. González, Marianella Herrera-Cuenca, Wendy Y. Huang, Izzeldin A.E. Ibrahim, Jaak Jürimäe, Katariina Kämppi, Tarun R. Katapally, Piyawat Katewongsa, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Asaduzzaman Khan, Agata Korcz, Yeon Soo Kim, Estelle Lambert, Eun-Young Lee, Marie Löf, Tom Loney, Juan López-Taylor, Yang Liu, Daga Makaza, Taru Manyanga, Bilyana Mileva, Shawnda A. Morrison, Jorge Mota, Vida K. Nyawornota, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Pairoj Saonuam, John Scriven, Jan Seghers, Natasha Schranz, Thomas Skovgaard, Melody Smith, Martyn Standage, Gregor Starc, Gareth Stratton, Narayan Subedi, Tim Takken, Tuija Tammelin, Chiaki Tanaka, David Thivel, Dawn Tladi, Richard Tyler, Riaz Uddin, Alun Williams, Stephen H.S. Wong, Ching-Lin Wu, Paweł Zembura and Mark S. Tremblay

properties . Bioinformatics . 2017 ; 33 ( 18 ): 2938 – 2940 . PubMed ID: 28645171 doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btx364 10.1093/bioinformatics/btx364 33. Kowarik A , Templ M . Imputation with the R Package VIM . J Stat Softw . 2016 ; 74 ( 7 ): 1 – 16 . doi:10.18637/jss.v074.i07 10.18637/jss.v074.i07 34