This paper provides a systematic review of current research findings using exergaming as a treatment for improving cognition and dual-task function in older adults. A literature search was conducted to collect exergaming intervention studies that were either randomized controlled or uncontrolled studies. Of the seven identified studies (five randomized controlled studies and two uncontrolled studies), three studies focused on cognitive function alone, two studies focused on dual-task function alone, and two studies measured both cognitive function and dual-task function. Current evidence supports that exergaming improves cognitive function and dual-task function, which potentially leads to fall prevention. However, it is unclear whether exergaming, which involves both cognitive input and physical exercise, has additional benefits compared with traditional physical exercise alone. Further studies should include traditional exercise as a control group to identify these potential, additional benefits.
Elisa F. Ogawa, Tongjian You and Suzanne G. Leveille
Robin S. Vealey
The editorial mission of The Sport Psychologist (TSP) emphasizes the development and implementation of knowledge to enhance the practice of sport psychology. A comprehensive review of all articles published in TSP from 1987 to 1992 was conducted to identify significant trends in knowledge development and implementation since the journal was established. One hundred seventy-six articles were examined and classified based on design, method, objective (scientific or professional), subject characteristics, author characteristics, and content area. Trends that were identified from the review include an emphasis on correlational designs, an increase in intervention studies and the use of case designs, and homogeneity of subjects and authors. Three future directions for advances in applied sport psychology are advocated to increase social relevance, enhance creativity, and reconceptualize the traditional paradigm of knowledge development.
Lori Bolgla and Terry Malone
To provide evidence regarding the therapeutic effects of exercise on subjects with patellofemoral-pain syndrome (PFPS).
Evidence was compiled with data located using the Medline, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases from 1985 to 2004 using the key words patellofemoral pain syndrome, exercise, rehabilitation, and strength.
The literature review examined intervention studies evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in subjects specif-cally diagnosed with PFPS. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance to PFPS rehabilitation that required an intervention of a minimum of 4 weeks.
The review supports using exercise as the primary treatment for PFPS.
Evidence exists regarding the use of isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, and closed kinetic chain exercise. Although clinicians have advocated the use of biofeedback and patella taping, there is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of these interventions on subjects diagnosed with PFPS.
Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Nicole Reinders and Pamela J. Bryden
Given the potential for dance to serve as a way to engage in physical activity, this review was undertaken to examine the use and effectiveness of physical activity interventions using dance among children and adolescents.Five databases were examined for dance-related physical activity interventions published between 2009–2016 fitting the inclusion criteria. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were then evaluated for studyquality against the Effective Public Health Practice Project assessment tool (Thomas, Ciliska, Dobbins, & Micucci. 2004) and key study information was extracted. Thirteen papers detailing 11 interventions wereobtained. Intervention study quality was rated as weak (based on scoring) for all studies. Multiple forms of dance were used, including exergaming approaches. Four interventions yielded increases in physical activity(reported in six articles), four interventions were inconclusive, and three interventions produced nonstatistically significant findings. Further research is required in this area to determine the effects of dance interventionson physical activity among youth.
Teresa Liu-Ambrose and John R. Best
Cognitive decline is a common feature of aging. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that has been identified as positively impacting cognitive health of older adults. Here, we review the current evidence from epidemiological (i.e., longitudinal cohort) and intervention studies on the role of physical activity and exercise in promoting cognitive health in older adults both with and without cognitive impairment. We highlight some of the potential underlying mechanisms and discuss some of the potential modifying factors, including exercise type and target population, by reviewing recent converging behavioral, neuroimaging, and biomarker evidence linking physical activity with cognitive health. We conclude with limitations and future directions for this rapidly expanding line of research.
Janet B. Parks and Mary Ann Roberton
This paper discusses three studies on changing people's attitudes toward sexist/nonsexist language. In Study 1, sport management students (N= 164) were asked how to persuade others to use nonsexist language. Many suggested education. Study 2 participants (N = 201) were asked if they had ever discussed sexist language in instructional settings. Analysis of their attitudes revealed an interaction between gender and instruction. Study 3 (N = 248) tested the effects of 3 types of instruction on student attitudes about sexist/nonsexist language. After a 50-minute intervention, Study 3 participants were generally undecided about sexist/nonsexist language, and their attitudes did not differ across instructional strategies (p > .01). In all conditions, males were significantly less receptive to nonsexist language than females (p < .01). This “gender gap” was magnified by a combination of direct and indirect instruction. Until more is known, the authors propose (a) modeling and (b) instruction grounded in empathy as initial strategies for teaching inclusive language.
Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis and Martin S. Hagger
Two persuasive communications were developed to assess the utility of an intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in promoting physical activity attitudes, intentions, and behavior. One persuasive communication targeted modal salient behavioral beliefs (salient belief condition) while the other persuasive communication targeted nonsalient behavioral beliefs (nonsalient belief condition). Results of an intervention study conducted on young people (N = 83, mean age 14.60 yrs, SD = .47) indicated that participants who were presented with the persuasive message targeting modal salient behavioral beliefs reported more positive attitudes (p < .05) and stronger intentions (p = .059) than those presented with the message targeting nonsalient behavioral beliefs. However, neither communication influenced physical activity participation (p > .05). Path analysis also indicated that the effects of the persuasive communication on intentions were mediated by attitudes and not by perceived behavioral control or subjective norms.
Nick Mardon, Hugh Richards and Amanda Martindale
This quasi-experimental intervention study investigated the impact of mindfulness training on attention and performance in swimmers. Following an 8-week intervention with six national-level university swimmers (M = 20 years), single case analysis of pre- and post- measurements for three of six participants showed large improvements in mindfulness and attention efficiency. Two participants showed a small increase in one of mindfulness or attention efficiency, and one showed no changes. Four participants improved performance times compared with season-best, and five participants improved self-rated performance. Athletes and coach positively evaluated mindfulness training. This study, with strong ecological validity, shows improvements in mindfulness, attention, and performance, consistent with theory that proposes attention as a mechanism for mindfulness based performance changes. Mindfulness training can be an effective and practical intervention. Further applied research is required utilizing designs to determine causality and further test the proposed mechanisms through which mindfulness may influence performance.
Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens
The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers’ beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers’ in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers’ beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers’ actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Oded Bar-Or and Tom Baranowski
This review examines the evidence that the level of physical activity (PA) or total energy expenditure during adolescence affects body adiposity in the obese and nonobese adolescent population. Several cross-sectional studies suggested that obese children were less physically active than their nonobese peers, but there was no consistent difference in the total energy expenditure. The likelihood that infants of obese mothers become obese at age 1 year is greater if their total energy expenditure (using the doubly labeled water technique) is lower at age 3 months. Many interventional studies in the general adolescent population show a small (1-3% body fat) reduction in adiposity as a result of physical training. It appears, though, that programs longer than one year are more efficacious than shorter programs. Lifestyle activities (e.g., walking to and from school) appear to have a more lasting effect than regimented activities (e.g., calisthenics or jogging).