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David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán and Antonio Martínez-Amat

mechanics during functional tasks and self-reported impaired function. 11 The flexed position in the lower limbs during Tai Chi practice is possibly linked to improvements in the range of motion of the ankle joint, as well as in the ankle joint torque force, identified as a contributing factor for postural

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

.1080/02640414.2013.777763 10. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , Fujii N . Athletics: mechanical energy flow in the recovery leg of elite race walkers . Sport Biomech . 2003 ; 2 ( 1 ): 1 – 13 . doi:10.1080/14763140308522804 10.1080/14763140308522804 11. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , et al . Joint torque and

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Kosuke Fujita, Masatoshi Nakamura, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoko Ibuki and Noriaki Ichihashi

15 seconds, respectively. Statistical Analysis SPSS ver. 17 (IBM Japan Ltd) was used for statistical analysis. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, condition × period) was used to evaluate differences in final angle, muscle tendon unit stiffness, and passive knee joint torque at the

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.23 24067150 6. Czaplicki A , Jarocka M , Walawski J . Isokinetic identification of knee joint torques before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . PLoS One . 2015 ; 10 ( 12 ): 0144283 . PubMed ID: 26646385 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144283 10

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Andrzej Kochanowicz, Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Jan Mieszkowski, Stanisław Sawczyn, Paweł Cięszczyk and Kazimierz Kochanowicz

influence the development of rapid muscle strength is the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles. In adults, it has been shown that strength training reduces antagonist coactivation and thus results in greater net joint torque ( 2 , 40 , 43 ). Studies by Grosset et al ( 21 ) and Lambertz et al ( 34

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Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza

interest during locomotion as the long lever of the foot permits the GRF to act at a substantial distance from the joint during locomotion. For this reason, internal ankle joint torques tend to be large and typically vary considerably as the magnitude, direction, and point of application of the GRF vector

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0245-2 Crozara , L.F. , Morcelli , M.H. , Marques , N.R. , Hallal , C.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of

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James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis

part of natural movement in nonhuman vertebrates ( Shen & Seipel, 2015 ) and insects ( Dudek & Full, 2006 ), and in humans ( Minetti, 1998 ; Prilutsky & Zatsiorsky, 2002 ). Second, research implies that the multiple sources of joint torque through the lower body converge to predictable force at the

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Micheal J. Luera, Brittany Dowling, Tyler W.D. Muddle and Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins

skills: descriptions and explanations . J Biomech . 1993 ; 26 ( suppl 1 ): 125 – 135 . doi:10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 8505347 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90084-R 5. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport