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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik and Phillip Gribble

&R test. Stretching-induced changes in flexibility were associated with changes in functional performance. The details of these findings and their implications are discussed below. Static stretching improves flexibility, joint range of motion, and joint torque. 25 – 28 Older adult fallers display reduced

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Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski and Jeff Houck

]: walking = 43.2% [7.4%]; standard step = 41.2% [8.5%]; high step =34.9% [7.2%] stance). Sagittal plane ankle and midfoot joint powers were calculated as the product of joint torques and relative segment to segment angular velocities (τ·ω). 12 The ankle and midfoot positive and negative total powers were

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Jeffrey C. Cowley, Steven T. McCaw, Kelly R. Laurson and Michael R. Torry

a result of differences in group habitus, the jump height of each participant was scaled to standing height (jump [in centimeters]/height [in centimeters] and mass (jump [in centimeters]/mass [in kilograms], respectively. Joint torques and joint mechanical powers of the hip, knee, and ankle joints

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Danny M. Pincivero, Rachael R. Polen and Brittany N. Byrd

: 21804300 doi:10.2114/jpa2.30.169 21804300 10.2114/jpa2.30.169 7. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kaneshisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 255 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x

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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

on ground reaction forces, joint torques and joint reaction forces in drop landings . J Biomech . 2006 ; 39 : 119 – 124 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 16271595 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 5. Schmitt S , Günther M . Human leg impact: energy dissipation

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David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán and Antonio Martínez-Amat

mechanics during functional tasks and self-reported impaired function. 11 The flexed position in the lower limbs during Tai Chi practice is possibly linked to improvements in the range of motion of the ankle joint, as well as in the ankle joint torque force, identified as a contributing factor for postural

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

.1080/02640414.2013.777763 10. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , Fujii N . Athletics: mechanical energy flow in the recovery leg of elite race walkers . Sport Biomech . 2003 ; 2 ( 1 ): 1 – 13 . doi:10.1080/14763140308522804 10.1080/14763140308522804 11. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , et al . Joint torque and

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Christopher D. Ramos, Melvin Ramey, Rand R. Wilcox and Jill L. McNitt-Gray

.1007/BF00429743 10.1007/BF00429743 499190 28. Muraki Y , Ae M , Koyama H , Yokozawa T . Joint torque and power of the takeoff leg in the long jump . Int J Sport Heal Sci . 2008 ; 6 : 21 – 32 . doi:10.5432/ijshs.6.21 10.5432/ijshs.6.21

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

.1080/15438627.2017.1282361 28128007 15. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels . J Appl Biomech . 2007 ; 23 ( 1 ): 42 – 51 . PubMed ID: 17585177 doi:10.1123/jab.23.1.42 10.1123/jab.23.1.42 17585177 16. Matsuo T

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

30701597 18. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kanehisa H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001