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Frank E. DiLiberto, Deborah A. Nawoczenski and Jeff Houck

]: walking = 43.2% [7.4%]; standard step = 41.2% [8.5%]; high step =34.9% [7.2%] stance). Sagittal plane ankle and midfoot joint powers were calculated as the product of joint torques and relative segment to segment angular velocities (τ·ω). 12 The ankle and midfoot positive and negative total powers were

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Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris

single-point mass. 38 In other words, the leg stiffness calculation does not account for the presence of joint torques that accelerate each segment’s inertia. This could explain why as velocity and load magnitude increased, the adjusted R 2 value of the model reduced (Table  1 ). Greater running

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Rebecca L. Krupenevich and Ross H. Miller

Foundation Doctoral Student Research Grant from the American College of Sports Medicine Foundation and the University of Maryland’s Department of Kinesiology Graduate Student Research Initiative Fund . References 1. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers

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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik and Phillip Gribble

&R test. Stretching-induced changes in flexibility were associated with changes in functional performance. The details of these findings and their implications are discussed below. Static stretching improves flexibility, joint range of motion, and joint torque. 25 – 28 Older adult fallers display reduced

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Walaa M. Elsais, Stephen J. Preece, Richard K. Jones and Lee Herrington

, confidence in EMG measurements can be developed by investigating the relationship between joint torque and EMG amplitude. Previous research has shown relationships between EMG amplitude and isometric torque in different lower limb muscles, such as rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis

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Danny M. Pincivero, Rachael R. Polen and Brittany N. Byrd

: 21804300 doi:10.2114/jpa2.30.169 21804300 10.2114/jpa2.30.169 7. Fukunaga T , Miyatani M , Tachi M , Kouzaki M , Kawakami Y , Kaneshisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 : 249 – 255 . doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x

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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

on ground reaction forces, joint torques and joint reaction forces in drop landings . J Biomech . 2006 ; 39 : 119 – 124 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 16271595 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.10.036 5. Schmitt S , Günther M . Human leg impact: energy dissipation

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Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Jon Torres-Unda, Brian Hanley and Nicholas Tam

.1080/02640414.2013.777763 10. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , Fujii N . Athletics: mechanical energy flow in the recovery leg of elite race walkers . Sport Biomech . 2003 ; 2 ( 1 ): 1 – 13 . doi:10.1080/14763140308522804 10.1080/14763140308522804 11. Hoga K , Ae M , Enomoto Y , et al . Joint torque and

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

.1080/15438627.2017.1282361 28128007 15. Aguinaldo AL , Buttermore J , Chambers H . Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various levels . J Appl Biomech . 2007 ; 23 ( 1 ): 42 – 51 . PubMed ID: 17585177 doi:10.1123/jab.23.1.42 10.1123/jab.23.1.42 17585177 16. Matsuo T

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Kosuke Fujita, Masatoshi Nakamura, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoko Ibuki and Noriaki Ichihashi

15 seconds, respectively. Statistical Analysis SPSS ver. 17 (IBM Japan Ltd) was used for statistical analysis. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, condition × period) was used to evaluate differences in final angle, muscle tendon unit stiffness, and passive knee joint torque at the