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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

increase lean body mass and basal metabolism, jointly assisting with weight control). 3 Additionally, aerobic and resistance exercise have several unique health outcomes (eg, greater maximum oxygen uptake adaptations from aerobic training vs greater muscular strength and endurance adaptations from

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

et al., 2017 ), with many athletes consuming the majority of their protein in their evening meal, with less consumed at breakfast and lunch. In terms of an absolute amount of protein per day, increasing protein to 2.3 g/kg body mass reduces the loss of lean body mass (LBM) during reduced calorie

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

strategically to ensure retention of lean body mass and hormonal status, weight loss of as little as 2–3 kg can have a favorable impact on explosive power and speed ( Huovinen et al., 2015 ). Despite the potential benefits of reducing body mass, sprint athletes may present with indicators of low energy

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Kemal Idrizovic, Bahri Gjinovci, Damir Sekulic, Ognjen Uljevic, Paulo Vicente João, Miodrag Spasic and Tine Sattler

, studies have rarely examined the effects of plyometric conditioning on anthropometric indices, even though changes in lean body mass (ie, muscle mass) and body fat percentage could positively affect volleyball performance ( 23 , 26 , 29 ). Skill-based conditioning is another popular training method in

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Neil Armstrong

exercise with peak V ˙ O 2 and body fat percentage. The authors assessed the stiffness index (measure of arterial stiffness) and the reflection index (measure of arterial dilatation capacity) using pulse contour analysis before and after a maximal exercise test, body fat content and lean body mass were

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Dan M. Cooper

, lean body mass (obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), and the traditional peak V ˙ O 2 (Figures  6 and 7 ). These observations hold the promise of greatly expanding the clinical and translational research utility of CPET. Earlier studies from our group have demonstrated the power of slope

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

the individual’s lean body mass (LBM; Loucks & Thuma, 2003 ). EA below 30 kcal kg LBM −1 day −1 is considered low EA and is generally associated with a number of endocrine-metabolic alterations gathered under the term relative energy deficiency in sport . It must be noted that relative energy

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

) – – – – – – 0 0 ± 0 Note . LBW = lean body mass. Quantification of Daily Energy Intake, Distribution, and Energy Expenditure During the Weekly Microcycle On the basis of a reduced daily loading pattern when compared with normal training, during Weeks 1–6, the player was advised to adhere to a reduced

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

(especially the PhA) after 12 weeks of progressive RT in resistance-trained older women. We hypothesized that (a) RT would increase muscle mass, strength, and consequently MQI and (b) as increases in lean body mass are reflected by a higher reactance and in turn a higher PhA, there would be a positive

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

is the recommended predictive equation for BMR in athletic populations when fat-free mass or lean body mass is unknown ( Burke & Deakin, 2015 ). A physical activity level of 1.45 was selected based on knowledge of the current population. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits were calculated from the