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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

significant differences between whey versus soy protein supplementation on muscle strength or fat-free mass. Miller et al. ( 2014 ) carried out a meta-analysis specifically investigating the combined effects of WP and RT, and reported a significant increase in lean body mass with WP supplementation. The

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Gislaine S. Kogure, Cristiana L. Miranda-Furtado, Daiana C.C. Pedroso, Victor B. Ribeiro, Matheus C. Eiras, Rafael C. Silva, Lisandra C. Caetano, Rui A. Ferriani, Rodrigo T. Calado and Rosana M. dos Reis

associated with obesity and IR. 9 A shorter telomere length has been associated with higher general and abdominal adiposity 10 and lower lean body mass, 11 particularly in women. 12 There is evidence that physical exercise can influence telomere and telomerase activity and could influence the regulation

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Andreas Ihle, Bruna R. Gouveia, Matthias Kliegel, Adilson Marques and Duarte L. Freitas

 al., 2013 ). In addition, there is evidence that older adults with higher PA level show MM above the sarcopenia threshold or have higher lean body mass ( Gouveia et al., 2016 ; Park, Park, Shephard, & Aoyagi, 2010 ). All these results support the hypothesis that maintaining high levels of daily PA may have

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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

increase lean body mass and basal metabolism, jointly assisting with weight control). 3 Additionally, aerobic and resistance exercise have several unique health outcomes (eg, greater maximum oxygen uptake adaptations from aerobic training vs greater muscular strength and endurance adaptations from

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

was water consumed ad libitum. Table 2 Daily Energy and Macronutrient Intake Expressed in Absolute and Relative Terms During the 7-Day Data Collection Period Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean (SD) Energy, kcal 2698 3607 3330 2931 3342 2695 3516 3160 (381) Energy, kcal/kg lean body mass 38.8 51.9 47.9 42.2 48

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Dan M. Cooper

, lean body mass (obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), and the traditional peak V ˙ O 2 (Figures  6 and 7 ). These observations hold the promise of greatly expanding the clinical and translational research utility of CPET. Earlier studies from our group have demonstrated the power of slope

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Kemal Idrizovic, Bahri Gjinovci, Damir Sekulic, Ognjen Uljevic, Paulo Vicente João, Miodrag Spasic and Tine Sattler

, studies have rarely examined the effects of plyometric conditioning on anthropometric indices, even though changes in lean body mass (ie, muscle mass) and body fat percentage could positively affect volleyball performance ( 23 , 26 , 29 ). Skill-based conditioning is another popular training method in

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

the individual’s lean body mass (LBM; Loucks & Thuma, 2003 ). EA below 30 kcal kg LBM −1 day −1 is considered low EA and is generally associated with a number of endocrine-metabolic alterations gathered under the term relative energy deficiency in sport . It must be noted that relative energy

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

et al., 2017 ), with many athletes consuming the majority of their protein in their evening meal, with less consumed at breakfast and lunch. In terms of an absolute amount of protein per day, increasing protein to 2.3 g/kg body mass reduces the loss of lean body mass (LBM) during reduced calorie

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

strategically to ensure retention of lean body mass and hormonal status, weight loss of as little as 2–3 kg can have a favorable impact on explosive power and speed ( Huovinen et al., 2015 ). Despite the potential benefits of reducing body mass, sprint athletes may present with indicators of low energy