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Nadège Tebbache and Alain Hamaoui

). Descriptions of the STS pattern emphasize the wideness of the articular chain involved, with high-amplitude movements occurring from the upper level of the spine to the lower limbs and a high level of coordination ( Kralj, Jaeger, & Munih, 1990 ; Millington et al., 1992 ; Nuzik, Lamb, VanSant, & Hirt, 1986

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Max R. Paquette and Daniel A. Melcher

male runners. We expected increases in selected injury-related lower limb biomechanical variables following the long run. The secondary purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between weekly running volume and the change in the selected injury-related variables before and after the long

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Pei-Chun Kao and Daniel P. Ferris

During passive lower limb movement, active use of the upper limbs increases unintentional lower limb muscle activation. We hypothesized that faster movement frequencies would amplify lower limb muscle activation during upper limb exertion but would not affect lower limb muscle activation when the upper limbs were relaxed. We studied 10 healthy participants exercising on a recumbent stepping machine that mechanically coupled the four limbs via handles and pedals. Participants exercised at four frequencies (30, 60, 90, 120 steps/min) under four conditions of active and passive movement. Self-driven lower limb motion resulted in greater muscle activation compared to externally driven lower limb motion. Muscle activation amplitude increased with frequency for all conditions except for externally driven stepping. These results indicate that fast upper limb movement facilitates neuromuscular recruitment of lower limb muscles during stepping tasks. If a similar effect occurs in neurologically impaired individuals during active stepping, self-assisted exercise might enhance neuromuscular recruitment during rehabilitation.

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Stephanie Di Lemme, Jon Sanderson, Richard G. Celebrini and Geoffrey C. Dover

lower limb circumference (Table  3 ). All pain and function measures improved throughout the rehabilitation. 18 , 19 Lower leg and thigh circumference remained relatively constant from weeks 1 through 5 and slightly increased during week 5, suggesting no atrophy of the knee flexors, extensors, and

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María Hernández, Fabrício Zambom-Ferraresi, Pilar Cebollero, Javier Hueto, José Antonio Cascante and María M. Antón

 al., 2011 ). However, it is not entirely clear whether muscle strength and muscle power are involved in the physical activity levels of older men with COPD. The peripheral muscle dysfunction of the lower limbs observed in older men with COPD is characterized by a reduction in the maximum muscle strength and

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David Rhodes, Mark Leather, Daniel Birdsall and Jill Alexander

stability. 24 Proprioceptive deficits resulting from lower limb injury in football requires proprioceptive training over periods of weeks, through balance and coordination exercises, in order to restore stabilometry. 14 , 15 Due to the multidirectional nature of football, it is important to consider the

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

considered data of the whole-body BMC, whole-body BMD, upper limbs BMD, and lower limbs BMD, separately. Early Sports Participation The participants reported during a face-to-face interview the engagement in sports during childhood (7–10 y) and adolescence (11–17 y). Two questions were used 17 , 18

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

bilateral strength asymmetry of both the injured and noninjured lower limbs, where values less than 10% are considered acceptable. 8 However, following a prolonged rehabilitation period, the detrained and atrophied noninjured limb may not represent a suitable control. Therefore, a healthy control group may

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Jérôme Vaulerin, Frédéric Chorin, Mélanie Emile, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville and Serge S. Colson

-electrode multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (AminoStats Bio-ZM II, Marans, France). 29 This technique utilizes an electric current of 0.8 mV and frequencies of 5, 50, and 200 kHz delivered via 4 adhesive electrodes. The firefighter sat on a chair, the upper and lower limbs were away from

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

gait speed. 7 , 8 Poor lower limb strength has been associated with slow gait speed and the likelihood of falling, making it an important predictor of functional status in older adults. 9 – 12 The association exists because joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle are summed in a coordinated fashion