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David Rhodes, Mark Leather, Daniel Birdsall and Jill Alexander

stability. 24 Proprioceptive deficits resulting from lower limb injury in football requires proprioceptive training over periods of weeks, through balance and coordination exercises, in order to restore stabilometry. 14 , 15 Due to the multidirectional nature of football, it is important to consider the

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

considered data of the whole-body BMC, whole-body BMD, upper limbs BMD, and lower limbs BMD, separately. Early Sports Participation The participants reported during a face-to-face interview the engagement in sports during childhood (7–10 y) and adolescence (11–17 y). Two questions were used 17 , 18

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

bilateral strength asymmetry of both the injured and noninjured lower limbs, where values less than 10% are considered acceptable. 8 However, following a prolonged rehabilitation period, the detrained and atrophied noninjured limb may not represent a suitable control. Therefore, a healthy control group may

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Jérôme Vaulerin, Frédéric Chorin, Mélanie Emile, Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville and Serge S. Colson

-electrode multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (AminoStats Bio-ZM II, Marans, France). 29 This technique utilizes an electric current of 0.8 mV and frequencies of 5, 50, and 200 kHz delivered via 4 adhesive electrodes. The firefighter sat on a chair, the upper and lower limbs were away from

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

gait speed. 7 , 8 Poor lower limb strength has been associated with slow gait speed and the likelihood of falling, making it an important predictor of functional status in older adults. 9 – 12 The association exists because joint torques at the hip, knee, and ankle are summed in a coordinated fashion

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Lachlan E. Garrick, Bryce C. Alexander, Anthony G. Schache, Marcus G. Pandy, Kay M. Crossley and Natalie J. Collins

Dynamic single-leg control of the lower limb during running and related sports, such as football and field hockey, may contribute to the development and persistence of lower limb pain and injury. 1 One of the most prominent features of poor single-leg control is dynamic (or apparent) knee valgus

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Alison R. Oates, Aaron Awdhan, Catherine Arnold, Joyce Fung and Joel L. Lanovaz

to toe) in adults aged 65 years and older. We hypothesized that adding haptic input would not affect step parameters but would improve balance control as indicated by a decreased COM acceleration and increased margin of stability (MOS), decreased COM and MOS variability, and a decrease in lower limb

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Hong-Wen Wu, Cheng-Feng Tsai, Kai-Han Liang and Yi-Wen Chang

conditioning in lower limbs. Bouillon et al 13 indicated that higher activation in gluteus maximus and gluteus medius was found in step-down than in lunge. In addition, body position may influence the muscle activation in lunge. Farrokhi et al 14 indicated that compared with lunge at neutral trunk position

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Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli and Felix Capanni

phase. Several studies have reported the vertical stiffness for the whole lower limb and joint stiffness for the ankle and knee joint during locomotion. 2 These can be affected by different surfaces 3 and footwear. 4 In addition, an increase in knee joint stiffness and leg stiffness has been shown to

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Dimitrios-Sokratis Komaris, Cheral Govind, Andrew Murphy, Alistair Ewen and Philip Riches

hierarchical clustering to classify the sit-to-walk movement and detect asymmetries in the movements of people with and without physical disabilities of the lower limbs. Even though trials are grouped through the clustering process, the movement strategy prescribed to each cluster needs to be identified