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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

incidences of mental illness in the general population. These studies, though, suffer from several limitations that include a limited sample size and a lack of matched comparison groups that may mask adverse effects. It remains unknown, then, whether athletes are better adjusted than their age- and sex

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Jonathan Sinclair and Paul J. Taylor

minimum of 20 ft away from the force platform. Cut angles were measured from the center of the force plate, and the corresponding line of movement was delineated using masking tape so that it was clearly evident to participants. The stance phase of the cut movement was similarly defined as the duration

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Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Montaño-Munuera, Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

explanation of experimental procedures, subjects were in a sitting position at 90° of knee flexion as a starting position. Their eyes were covered by a mask to block their visual inputs. Four nonreflective markers were placed on the dominant limb: (1) over the apex of the great trochanter, (2) at the

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Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas and Dawn P. Coe

for gas flow and volume. Subjects were fitted with a Hans Rudolph (8900 series mask; Hans Rudolph Inc, Shawnee, KS) and vest containing the portable device. Two of the following criteria had to be met to determine if peak effort was achieved: (1) peak heart rate (HR peak ) ≥195 beats per minute; (2

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Cheryl A. Howe

participants were allowed to remove the mask. Participants played the exact same games at each visit (PMU and no PMU), with the same rules used for the traditional children’s games and starting at the same difficulty level for active video games. Physical Activity Level and Enjoyment At both visits

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Cindy N. Nguyen, Reuben N. Clements, Lucas A. Porter, Nicole E. Clements, Matthew D. Gray, Dustin J. Killian and Russell T. Baker

which could mask impairment in a concussed individual. As is the case in most studies, multiple limitations were present in our study. We were unable to control for many factors including diet, sleep patterns, or activity levels of participants on testing days. While it is possible these issues could

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

concentric mode and at 90°/s eccentric mode. In addition, for each wrist, the peak torque rates for unilateral extension/flexion were calculated at both angular velocities. Wrist proprioception was evaluated as active joint position sense (AJPS). To prevent visual input, all subjects wore eye masks during

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan

temperature of −120°C in a cryosauna (CryoPod, Cumbria, United Kingdom). During the PBC sessions, players wore minimal clothing with shorts, socks, woollen slippers, woollen face mask, gloves, and a headband worn to avoid frostbite. Throughout the PBC session, participants were instructed to remain in motion

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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

subjects performed 2 assessments of knee position sense, the position-reproducing and position-matching tasks. The same starting position was used for both tasks, with subjects sitting in a comfortable chair, wearing an eye mask to eliminate visual feedback of knee position, and with knees flexed to 90

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

.B. ( 2000 ). Weight stability masks sarcopenia in elderly men and women . American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, 279 ( 2 ), E366 – E375 . PubMed ID: 10913037 doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.2000.279.2.E366 Gallagher , D , Visser , M. , De Meersman , R.E. , Sepúlveda , D