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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

directors by gender or race. The authors concluded that “there must be some other impediments that are rendering women and minorities less desirable to hire as the athletic director of an intercollegiate athletic department” (p. 44). Similarly, Sagas and Cunningham ( 2004 ), in a study of 213 NCAA Division

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Earl Smith and Angela J. Hattery

nothing threatening going on in the arena back then. i never felt uncomfortable, but i think southern whites simply were not comfortable being in an arena or at a bar where they were in the minority. These views expressed led to the downfall of Levenson and soon thereafter he sold his majority share

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Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher

Banwell et al.’s ( 2019 ) participants explicitly states that those in positions of power should be “. . . making sure young women, and not just young women, but women of other underserved minorities can see themselves in the leadership and as examples of excellence . . .” (p. 132). Griffith ( 2015

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Daniel Sailofsky and Madeleine Orr

, para. 2) and the “the Prime Minister of Saturday Night” ( Gillet et al., 1996 , p. 59) by those in the hockey and research communities, was relieved of his duties at Hockey Night in Canada for making negative comments about immigrants and minorities in his Coach’s Corner segment. It is important to

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Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams

least in the sense that women now compose a substantial minority of fans at men’s football matches across a number of countries ( Ben-Porat, 2009 ; Pope, 2017 ). However, as indicated by Esmonde, Cooky, and Andrews ( 2015 ), such an increase does not necessarily lead to shifts in cultural discourse

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Robert J. Lake, Simon J. Eaves and Bob Nicholson

twentieth century, and underlined their interwar efforts to create an Empire team for the Olympics. However, the extension of this honorary position to Americans was never comprehensively or wholeheartedly adopted, which suggests, perhaps, that opinions similar to Stead’s developed into minority ones as

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Jafrā D. Thomas and Bradley J. Cardinal

not match the socioeconomic realities of most populations at risk, who tend to be low-income and to possess other minority statuses. Other issues of written physical activity resources noted in the literature include, low visual representation of women and other minority group members, inaccurate

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Dawn Heinecken

flawlessness of her performance as a public figure.” As minorities in a male-dominated profession, female coaches are tokenized and subjected to heightened scrutiny ( LaVoi & Dutove, 2012 ; Norman, 2010 ). They face a double bind in which they are required to conform to feminine norms even as they exhibit

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Katelyn Esmonde and Shannon Jette

appear in a minority of articles—see Harrington et al., 2008 ; Hinde & Dixon, 2005 ; Lake & Townshend, 2013 ). Thus, objective assessments of the environment are limiting as they assume a level of inertia that ignores these processes. For example, if walkability is a determining factor, as Burgoine et

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highlighted the under-representation of women in coaching, focusing primarily on the challenges faced by elite female coaches. A shift in socio-cultural and political landscapes towards equal opportunities for minority groups in society has supported the development of further enquiry into supportive