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  • "moderate to vigorous physical activity" x
  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Karla E. Foster, Timothy K. Behrens, Abigail L. Jager and David A. Dzewaltowski

Background:

This study evaluated the effect of elimination and nonelimination games on objectively measured physical activity and psychosocial responses in children.

Methods:

A total of 29 children in grades 4 to 6 (65.5% male; 10.5 ± 1.0 years old) wore an accelerometer while participating in 2 elimination and 2 nonelimination games. Activity counts were collected using a 30-second epoch and converted to METs to determine minutes spent in sedentary behavior and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Self-efficacy, enjoyment, and peer-victimization were assessed on 4 occasions (before and after 2 elimination and 2 nonelimination games).

Results:

Overall, girls spent more time in sedentary behavior compared with boys. Children engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during nonelimination games compared with elimination games. Furthermore, children significantly increased self-efficacy after playing both game sessions. A significant interaction between type of game and time of measurement in the prediction of enjoyment showed that enjoyment modestly increased after elimination games and slightly decreased after nonelimination games. There were no differences in peer-victimization.

Conclusion:

This study provides preliminary evidence that nonelimination games provide more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with elimination games, but elimination games may be more enjoyable.

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Paul D. Loprinzi, Gina Pariser and Pradeep Y. Ramulu

Background:

To examine the association between accelerometer-assessed physical activity and visual acuity among a nationally representative sample of adults with evidence of diabetes.

Methods:

Six hundred seventy adult participants with diabetes (age 20 to 85) from the 2003–2006 NHANES cycles constituted the analyzed sample. Participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days to quantify time spent in sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Visual acuity was objectively assessed for each eye.

Results:

In multivariable models, every 1-hour increment in daily sedentary behavior was associated with 23% greater likelihood (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.01–1.52) of having uncorrected refractive error as opposed to normal sight. Performing more than 5 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a 82% lower likelihood of having vision impairment as opposed to normal sight (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.06–0.50) while every 1-hour increment in daily light-intensity physical activity was, after adjustments, independently associated with a 38% lower likelihood of vision impairment (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42–0.92).

Conclusion:

People with diabetes spending more time in sedentary behavior and less time performing light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are more likely to have poorer vision.

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Alex C. Garn, Birgitta L. Baker, Emily K. Beasley and Melinda A. Solmon

Background:

Traditional videogames contribute to sedentary behaviors; in contrast, exergaming is a relatively new concept that uses videogames to promote exercise during game play. Nintendo Wii Fit is a commercially popular exergaming platform geared toward improving fitness, however, limited empirical evidence related to the physical and mental benefits of the Wii Fit platform currently exist. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate possible physical and motivational benefits of Nintendo Wii Fit.

Methods:

A repeated measures design was used with 30 college-aged students to explore physical activity, enjoyment, and future intentions of physical activity associated with Wii Fit exergames.

Results:

Data supported the efficacy of Wii Fit Basic Run to consistently produce moderate to vigorous physical activity across participants. Future intentions were higher for exergaming compared with generic exercise and obese individuals enjoyed exergaming more than generic physical activity.

Conclusions:

The Basic Run Wii Fit game provided opportunities for accumulating moderate to vigorous physical activity that provided motivational benefits to these participants, especially those classified as obese. Future research should examine the ability of Wii Fit exergames to produce physical activity and motivation over time.

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Timothy A. Brusseau, James Hannon and Ryan Burns

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from low-income families.

Methods:

Participants included 1390 children recruited from kindergarten through sixth grade (mean age = 8.4 ± 1.8 years). Physical activity measures were collected at baseline and at 6 weeks and 12 weeks after program implementation, and HRF measures were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks after program implementation.

Results:

There were significant but weak-to-moderate increases in step counts (mean difference = 603.1 steps, P < .001, d = 0.39) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean difference = 4.9 minutes, P < .001, d = 0.39) at 12 weeks compared with baseline. There were also significant but moderate increases in Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run laps (mean difference = 6.5 laps, P < .001, d = 0.47) at 12 weeks compared with baseline. Generalized mixed models respectively yielded 3.02 and 2.34 greater odds that a child would achieve step count and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity standards and 2.26 greater odds that a child would achieve aerobic fitness standards at 12 weeks compared with baseline (P < .001).

Conclusions:

The 12-week CSPAP improved physical activity and HRF in children from low-income families; however, the magnitude of the effects was weak to moderate.

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Megan S. Patterson, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer and Jill M. Beville

Background:

Due to numerous health benefits, national recommendations call Americans to participate in muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days/week. However, college-aged women tend to fall short of recommendations. This study sought to examine correlates of college women meeting strength training recommendations using the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM).

Methods:

Undergraduate women (n = 421) completed surveys measuring strength training, demographics, and IBM constructs. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS 19.

Results:

Respondents were on average 20.1 years old, 79.3% were white, and 66.3% did not meet strength training recommendations. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships (P ≤ .01) between strength training and attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A logistic regression model revealed self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predictive of college women meeting U.S. strength training recommendations.

Conclusions:

This study supports using the IBM to understand strength training behavior among college women. Further research is needed to better understand mediating effects among IBM constructs.

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Deborah A. Cohen, Scott Ashwood, Molly Scott, Adrian Overton, Kelly R. Evenson, Carolyn C. Voorhees, Ariane Bedimo-Rung and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Proximity to routine destinations is an important correlate of physical activity. We examined the association between distance from school and physical activity in adolescent girls.

Methods:

We mapped the addresses of 1554 sixth-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) Study and calculated the shortest distance from home to school along the street network. Using a hierarchical design we examined the association between MET-weighted moderate to vigorous physical activity (MW- MVPA) and distance to school, while controlling for potential confounders.

Results:

Distance to school was inversely associated with weekday MW- MVPA for middle school girls. For every mile the girls lived from their schools, they engaged in an average of 13 fewer MET-weighted minutes per week.

Conclusions:

Distance to school is inversely associated with MW-MVPA. The most adversely affected girls lived more than 5 miles from school. Time spent commuting could explain reduced time for physical activity.

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Gislaine Cristina Vagetti, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa Filho, Natália Boneti Moreira, Valdomiro de Oliveira, Oldemar Mazzardo and Wagner de Campos

This study examined whether the weekly volume and frequency of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light walking (LW) were associated with quality of life (QOL) domains of 1,806 older women from Brazil. The WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD instruments were used to measure QOL, while the weekly volume and frequency of MVPA and LW were assessed by IPAQ. An ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. The weekly volumes of MVPA and LW were associated with several domains of QOL. Higher frequency of MVPA was associated with better scores in 10 QOL domains. The weekly frequency of LW, in turn, was associated with all QOL domains. In conclusion, promoting active transport and encouraging physical activity in older adults, for at least 150 min and distributed several days per week, help to increase QOL.

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Tanya M.F. Scarapicchia, Catherine M. Sabiston, Ross E. Andersen and Enrique Garcia Bengoechea

Young inactive healthy-weight females (n = 42) were randomly assigned to exercise at a self-selected pace on a treadmill beside a confederate who was providing either intrinsic or externally regulated verbal primes. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percentage of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and exercise continuance were recorded. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing mood pre- and postexercise session and postexercise motivational outcomes. The intrinsic motivation group reported higher RPE values after 8 min of exercise, had higher recorded HR measures at all 5 recorded time points, exercised at a higher %HR max, spent more time in MVPA, and were more likely to continue to exercise than participants in the externally regulated motivation group. A time effect was noted for vigor. Based on these findings, exercise motivation can be “contagious” through verbal primes, suggesting that exercising with or around intrinsically motivated individuals may have beneficial outcomes.

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Margaret Schneider, Andrea Dunn and Daniel Cooper

Many adolescents do not meet public health recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In studies of variables influencing adolescent MVPA, one that has been understudied is the affective response to exercise. We hypothesized that adolescents with a more positive affective response to acute exercise would be more active. Adolescents (N = 124; 46% male) completed two 30-min exercise tasks (above and below the ventilatory threshold [VT]), and wore ActiGraph accelerometers for 6.5 ± 0.7 days. Affective valence was assessed before, during, and after each task. A more positive affective response during exercise below the VT was associated with greater participation in MVPA (p < .05). The results are consistent with the hypothesis that individuals who have a more positive affective response to exercise will engage in more MVPA. To promote greater participation in MVPA among adolescents, programs should be designed to facilitate a positive affective experience during exercise.

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Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Hilde Van Keer, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens

Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ± 1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students’ personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory’s emphasis on quality of motivation.