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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

which ER was performed (7 levels: 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°). Dependent variables were average and peak muscle activation for each of the infraspinatus, middle deltoid, posterior deltoid, and INFRA/PD. Procedures Surface electromyography (SEMG) was performed on the dominant shoulder (eg

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Jinah Kim, Sung Cheol Lee, Youngmin Chun, Hyung-Pil Jun, Jeffrey G. Seegmiller, Kyung Min Kim and Sae Yong Lee

optimally activated and controlled in overuse injuries. A previous study confirmed that abnormally increased muscle activation and altered kinematic movement appeared to recruit a weak muscle in subjects with patellofemoral pain. 8 The authors suggested the cause to be the greater neuromuscular control

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Allison L. Kinney, Matthew Giel, Brady Harre, Kyle Heffner, Timothy McCullough, Maria Savino, Alexi Scott and Joaquin A. Barrios

Sufficiently high levels of muscle activation are required for the development of muscle strength. To enhance athletic performance or rehabilitation therapies related to the lumbar region, the musculature of the hips, pelvis, and trunk is often a primary exercise target. 1 Furthermore, “core

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Pei-Chun Kao and Daniel P. Ferris

During passive lower limb movement, active use of the upper limbs increases unintentional lower limb muscle activation. We hypothesized that faster movement frequencies would amplify lower limb muscle activation during upper limb exertion but would not affect lower limb muscle activation when the upper limbs were relaxed. We studied 10 healthy participants exercising on a recumbent stepping machine that mechanically coupled the four limbs via handles and pedals. Participants exercised at four frequencies (30, 60, 90, 120 steps/min) under four conditions of active and passive movement. Self-driven lower limb motion resulted in greater muscle activation compared to externally driven lower limb motion. Muscle activation amplitude increased with frequency for all conditions except for externally driven stepping. These results indicate that fast upper limb movement facilitates neuromuscular recruitment of lower limb muscles during stepping tasks. If a similar effect occurs in neurologically impaired individuals during active stepping, self-assisted exercise might enhance neuromuscular recruitment during rehabilitation.

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

-1936) was performed in each quadrant of the test areas prior to data collection (Figure  1 ). Baseline Measurement Protocols For muscle activation, an MVC protocol established baseline measures of the selected lower extremity muscles. EMG values were expressed as a percentage of amplitude from the MVC

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

muscle activation (during these postures) in the large muscle groups is associated with insulin resistance, increased triglycerides levels, and suppression of high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels 7 , 8 and is, therefore, an important aspect in SB and its association with declined health. So, not

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

posterolateral) of the SEBT, because it was reported that these 3 directions measure the same constructs as the other 5 directions of the SEBT. However, the recommendation was not based on the electromyographic (EMG) data. 3 , 10 So far the muscle activation of the LE during all the 8 directions of the SEBT was

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Nickolai Martonick, Kimber Kober, Abigail Watkins, Amanda DiEnno, Carmen Perez, Ashlie Renfro, Songah Chae and Russell Baker

During movement, dynamic joint stability is achieved through both passive ligament restraints and muscle forces acting on the joint. 1 Therefore, factors of neuromuscular control, such as muscle activation and strength, as well as the resulting kinetic and kinematic measures, should be considered when

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Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine and Ernst Albin Hansen

bout rate enhancement was reported in healthy individuals ( Hansen, Ebbesen, Dalsgaard, Mora-Jensen, & Rasmussen, 2015 ). Briefly, the phenomenon constitutes a cumulating increase in freely chosen tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation and movement consisting of externally unloaded

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

with EMS, which may produce a load insufficient to yield group differences. The analysis did not reveal a significant difference in the CSA of the RA or LAW between the groups, so we could not confirm that ST was superior to EMS for increasing the CSA of the RA and LAW; moreover, muscle activation was