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Gary Slater, David Jenkins, Peter Logan, Hamilton Lee, Matthew Vukovich, John A. Rathmacher and Allan G. Hahn

This investigation evaluated the effects of oral β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on training responses in resistance-trained male athletes who were randomly administered HMB in standard encapsulation (SH), HMB in time release capsule (TRH), or placebo (P) in a double-blind fashion. Subjects ingested 3 g · day−1 of HMB or placebo for 6 weeks. Tests were conducted pre-supplementation and following 3 and 6 weeks of supplementation. The testing battery assessed body mass, body composition (using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), and 3-repetition maximum isoinertial strength, plus biochemical parameters, including markers of muscle damage and muscle protein turnover. While the training and dietary intervention of the investigation resulted in significant strength gains (p < .001) and an increase in total lean mass (p = .01), HMB administration had no influence on these variables. Likewise, biochemical markers of muscle protein turnover and muscle damage were also unaffected by HMB supplementation. The data indicate that 6 weeks of HMB supplementation in either SH or TRH form does not influence changes in strength and body composition in response to resistance training in strength-trained athletes.

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Mitchell M. Kanter

Free radicals have been implicated in the development of diverse diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cataracts, and recent epidemic-logical data suggest an inverse relationship between antioxidant intake and cardiovascular disease risk. Data also suggest that antioxidants may delay aging, Research has indicated that free radical production and subsequent lipid peroxidation are normal sequelae to the rise in oxygen consumption with exercise. Consequently, antioxidant supplementation may detoxify the peroxides produced during exercise and diminish muscle damage and soreness. Vitamin E, beta carotene, and vitamin C have shown promise as protective antioxidants. Other ingestible products with antioxidant properties include selenium and coenzyme Q10. The role (if any) that free radicals play in the development of exercise-induced tissue damage, or the protective role that antioxidants may play, remains to be elucidated. Current methods used to assess exercise-induced lipid peroxidation are not extremely specific or sensitive; research that utilizes more sophisticated methodologies should help to answer many questions regarding dietary antioxidants.

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Renee A. Dalton, Janet Walberg Rankin, Don Sebolt and Frank Gwazdauskas

The effect of acute carbohydrate consumption on performance and metabolism of resistance-trained males was determined. Twenty-two subjects, assigned to either carbohydrate (C, n = 8), placebo (P, n - 8), or control (N, n = 6), performed standardized workouts every other day for a week prior to testing and throughout the testing period. Three of these workouts (Tl, T2, and T3) were the performance test in that the last bouts of leg extension and bench press were done to failure at 80% of 10 repetition maximum. A carbohydrate or placebo beverage was consumed 30 min prior to T3. Blood samples were drawn before and after T2 and T3. There was no effect of carbohydrate or energy restriction on number of repetitions done during the leg extension performance test. Carbohydrate intake prior to a resistance exercise bout done in negative energy balance state did not affect performance or evidence of muscle damage.

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Rebecca A. Skillen, Massimo Testa, Elizabeth A. Applegate, Eric A. Heiden, Andrea J. Fascetti and Gretchen A. Casazza

This study examined the effect of amino acids in a carbohydrate beverage on cycling performance. Twelve male athletes (28.5 pp2.1 yr) cycled at 75% VO2peak for 90 min followed by a ride to exhaustion at 85% VO2peak, before (T1) and on 2 consecutive days (T2 and T3) after 2 weeks of supplementation with 3.6% carbohydrate plus 1% amino acids (AA) or 4.6% carbohydrate-only (CHO) isocaloric beverages. Muscle damage was assessed by plasma creatine kinase (CK), and muscle fatigue by changes in vertical jump pre- to postexercise. Muscle soreness, overall fatigue, and changes in mood state were assessed using questionnaires. Plasma CK was lower for AA in T3 (214.0 ss13.5 vs. 485.9 11191.4 U/L immediately post, 213.9 ÷ 13.1 vs. 492.0 ÷ 199.4 U/L 5 hr post, and 194.9 ÷ 17.9 vs. 405.9 ÷ 166.6 U/L 24 hr postexercise in AA and CHO, respectively). Time to exhaustion decreased from T2 to T3 only in CHO (10.9 ÷ 2.5 to 12.6 ÷ 3.2 vs. 13.8 ÷ 2.8 to 7.8 ÷ 1.5 min in AA and CHO, respectively). Vertical-jump change from pre- to postexercise was greater in T3 for the CHO treatment. Total fatigue score and mood disturbance decreased significantly only with AA in T3. The addition of AA to a carbohydrate beverage after consecutive-day exercise bouts reduced muscle damage as indicated by CK levels, decreased fatigue, and maintained exercise performance compared with consuming carbohydrate alone.

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Ewa Jówko, Jaroslaw Sacharuk, Bozena Balasinska, Jacek Wilczak, Malgorzata Charmas, Piotr Ostaszewski and Robert Charmas

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of acute ingestion of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer players exposed to intense exercise.

Methods:

This randomized, double-blinded study was conducted on 16 players during a general preparation period, when all athletes participated in a strength-training program focused on the development of strength endurance. After ingestion of a single dose of GTP (640 mg) or placebo, all athletes performed an intense muscle-endurance test consisting of 3 sets of 2 strength exercises (bench press, back squat) performed to exhaustion, with a load at 60% 1-repetition maximum and 1-min rests between sets. Blood samples were collected preexercise, 5 min after the muscle-endurance test, and after 24 hr of recovery. Blood plasma was analyzed for the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid–reacting substances (TBARS), uric acid (UA), total catechins, total antioxidant status (TAS), and activity of creatine kinase (CK); at the same time, erythrocytes were assayed for the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD).

Results:

In both groups, plasma TBARS, UA, and TAS increased significantly postexercise and remained elevated after a 24-hr recovery period. SOD activity in erythrocytes did not change significantly in response to the muscle-endurance test, whereas in both groups plasma CK activity increased significantly after 24 hr of recovery. Acute intake of GTP cased a slight but significant increase in total plasma catechins. However, GTP was found not to exert a significant effect on measured parameters.

Conclusions:

Acute ingestion of GTP (640 mg) does not attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage.

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Patrick Gray, Andrew Chappell, Alison McE Jenkinson, Frank Thies and Stuart R. Gray

Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils—although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

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Gerard Carmona, Emma Roca, Mario Guerrero, Roser Cussó, Alfredo Irurtia, Lexa Nescolarde, Daniel Brotons, Josep L. Bedini and Joan A. Cadefau

Objective:

To investigate changes after a mountain ultramarathon (MUM) in the serum concentration of fast (FM) and slow (SM) myosin isoforms, which are fiber-type-specific sarcomere proteins. The changes were compared against creatine kinase (CK), a widely used fiber-sarcolemma-damage biomarker, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a widely used cardiac biomarker.

Methods:

Observational comparison of response in a single group of 8 endurance-trained amateur athletes. Time-related changes in serum levels of CK, cTnI, SM, and FM from competitors were analyzed before, 1 h after the MUM, and 24 and 48 h after the start of the MUM by 1-way ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. Pearson correlation coefficient was employed to examine associations between variables.

Results:

While SM was significantly (P = .009) increased in serum 24 h after the beginning of the MUM, FM and cTnI did not change significantly. Serum CK activity peak was observed 1 h after the MUM (P = .002). Moreover, serum peaks of CK and SM were highly correlated (r = .884, P = .004).

Conclusions:

Since there is evidence of muscle damage after prolonged mountain running, the increase in SM serum concentration after a MUM could be indirect evidence of slow- (type I) fiber-specific sarcomere disruptions.

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William M. Sherman, Julie M. Lash, John C. Simonsen and Susan A. Bloomfield

Because muscle damage from eccentric exercise has been associated with alterations in muscle glycogen metabolism, this study determined the effects of exercise on the insulin and glucose responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In a repeated-measures design, 11 subjects undertook either no exercise, 2 min of isokinetic leg exercise, or 50 min of level or downhill running. No exercise was performed and diet was controlled during the 48 hrs after the treatments and before the OGTT. Ratings of muscle soreness and CK activity were significantly elevated 48 hrs after downhill running. Level running also increased CK activity but did not induce muscle soreness. Isokinetic exercise did not affect either one. Blood glucose responses to the OGTT were similar among the treatments. In contrast, the insulin responses to the OGTT following downhill running were significantly increased. These results suggest that eccentric exercise associated with downhill running that results in delayed muscle soreness is associated with the development of a mild insulin-resistant condition.

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Robert A. Robergs

During the initial hours of recovery from prolonged exhaustive lower body exercise, muscle glycogen synthesis occurs at rates approximating 1-2 mmol·kg−1 wet wt·hr1 if no carbohydrate is consumed. When carbohydrate is consumed during the recovery, the maximal rate of glycogen synthesis approximates 7-10 mmol·kg−1 wet wt·hr1. The rate of postexercise glycogen synthesis is lower if the magnitude of glycogen degradation is small, if less than 0.7 gm glucose·kg−1 body wt·hr1 is ingested, when the recovery is active, and when the carbohydrate feeding is delayed. The rate of postexercise glycogen synthesis is not reduced during the initial hours (< 4) after eccentric exercise. For studies evaluating muscle glycogen synthesis in excess of 12 hours of recovery, average rates of glycogen synthesis are balow 4 mmo1·kg−1 wet wt·hr1. Glycogen synthesis is known to be impaired for time periods in excess of 24 hours following exercise causing eccentric muscle damage. Following intense exercise resulting in high concentrations of muscle lactate, muscle glycogen synthesis occurs at between 15-25 mmol·kg−1 wet wt·hr1. These synthesis rates occur without ingested carbohydrate during the recovery period and are maintained when a low intensity active recovery is performed.

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John Quindry, Lindsey Miller, Graham McGinnis, Megan Irwin, Charles Dumke, Meir Magal, N. Travis Triplett, Jeffrey McBride and Zea Urbiztondo

Acute strength exercise elicits a transient oxidative stress, but the factors underlying the magnitude of this response remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether muscle-fiber type relates to the magnitude of blood oxidative stress after eccentric muscle activity. Eleven college-age men performed 3 sets of 50 eccentric knee-extensions. Blood samples taken pre-, post-, and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise were assayed for comparison of muscle damage and oxidative-stress biomarkers including protein carbonyls (PCs). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were assayed for relative percentage of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers. There was a mixed fiber composition (Type I = 39.6% ± 4.5%, Type IIa = 35.7% ± 3.5%, Type IIx = 24.8% ± 3.8%; p = .366). PCs were elevated 24, 48, and 72 hr (p = .032) postexercise, with a peak response of 126% (p = .012) above baseline, whereas other oxidative-stress biomarkers were unchanged. There are correlations between Type II muscle-fiber type and postexercise PC. Further study is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the observed fast-twitch muscle-fiber oxidative-stress relationship.