The purpose of this study was to examine the process of change at the level of youth sport by identifying the impetus for change, responses to change by stakeholders, and factors that constrained or aided the change process. Theoretically, this study builds upon an existing integrative change model. The context of this research is two youth soccer associations in Ontario, Canada, undergoing a long-term structural redesign mandated by the provincial soccer association. Stakeholders from local soccer clubs, as well as the Ontario Soccer Association (N = 20), identified key factors influencing the implementation and success of change. Pressures to change and individual efforts made by board members, coaches, and parents were noted as aiding the change process. Limited collaboration with stakeholders, poor communication, misunderstandings of the change, and constrained organizational capacity negatively affected the change process.
Julie Legg, Ryan Snelgrove and Laura Wood
Brian P. Soebbing, Pamela Wicker and Daniel Weimar
Previous research has examined the effect of changes in upper management positions on actual organizational performance; however, the influence of leadership changes on performance expectations has been largely neglected. This gap in the literature is surprising given that failure to meet expectations leads to dismissal. The purpose of the present research is to analyze how coaching changes affect expectations of a sports team’s performance. Betting lines are used as performance expectations because they are unbiased forecasts of game outcomes. This study uses data from 13 seasons of the German Football Bundesliga. Significant positive timelagged effects on performance expectations are evident when examining underlying expected performance. These positive effects are evident 8 weeks after the leadership change, indicating that new leaders are expected to need some time before significant performance improvements are expected to occur.
Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier
The heads of marketing and promotion for major professional and university sport organizations were asked to rate the relative importance of 19 marketing objectives on a 5-point Likert scale; 164 responded. Factor analysis resulted in the creation of six factors: player quality, community image of team, entertainment value of sport, team marketing, team as a contender, and attractiveness of game location. ANOVA, Tukey, and student t tests used on the data resulted in significant differences between leagues for the two factors of community image of team and entertainment value of sport. Professional teams favored 5 of 6 objectives over university teams: value of ticket price, entertainment value of the sport, image of the team, community-oriented nature of the team, and availability of athletes for community events.
Chae-Hee Park, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Marcia G. Ory, Jane Gleason-Senior, Terry L. Bazzarre and Robin Mockenhaupt
This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the National Blueprint (NB) on the policies, programs, and organizational culture of selected national organizations. The theoretical model selected to assess the impact of the NB on organizational behavior was Burke’s system theory of organizational change. Three organizations, AARP, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and the Administration on Aging (AoA), were selected for the study. Two individuals in each of these organizations were selected for interview. Semistructured interviews and document reviews were used in the data-collection process. Findings showed that the publication and establishment of the NB resulted in changes in the operating procedures of AARP, ACSM, and AoA. The results were broadly consistent with Burke’s system theory of organizational change. The publication of the NB was shown to affect the behavior of organizational leaders, organizational culture, policies, programs, and individual and organizational performance. The new information generated has increased our understanding of the impact of health campaigns on organizational behavior.
Pål Augestad, Nils Asle Bergsgard and Atle Ø. Hansen
In this article, we argue that neoinstitutional theory can increase our understanding of the different ways nations develop structures for top-level sport. Theorists of the neoinstitutional school concentrate on how and to what degree organizations adapt to both formal and informal expectations in their institutional environment. Elite sports organizations participate in different organizational fields, and that pulls the organization in different directions. The empirical case for our discussion is the organization of elite sport in Norway. We will attempt to place elite sport in Norway in an international context by relating its development, structure, and working procedures to the development of corresponding elite sport systems in other Western countries. In addition to striking similarities among various national models for the organization of top-level sport, there are distinguishing national features that result from different cultural and political traditions.
Jasper Truyens, Veerle De Bosscher and Popi Sotiriadou
Research on elite sport policy tends to focus on the policy factors that can influence success. Even though policies drive the management of organizational resources, the organizational capacity of countries in specific sports to allocate resources remains unclear. This paper identifies and evaluates the organizational capacity of five sport systems in athletics (Belgium [separated into Flanders and Wallonia], Canada, Finland, and the Netherlands). Organizational capacity was evaluated using the organizational resources and first-order capabilities framework (Truyens, De Bosscher, Heyndels, & Westerbeek, 2014). Composite indicators and a configuration analysis were used to collect and analyze data from a questionnaire and documents. The participating sport systems demonstrate diverse resource configurations, especially in relation to program centralization, athlete development, and funding prioritization. The findings have implications for high performance managers’ and policy makers’ approach to strategic management and planning for organizational resources in elite sport.
Marit Sørensen and Nina Kahrs
The Norwegian Olympic Committee and Confederation of Sports’ commitment to integrate disability sport in the sport organizations for the able-bodied was evaluated based upon a description of an ideal, inclusive sports organization. Data were collected primarily through interviews and questionnaires. The results indicate that the integration process proceeded more slowly than originally intended. There were still unresolved matters on the structural/organizational level, and the sports federations’ officials were uncertain about the extent of their responsibility and the role of the new sports organization for persons with a disability. More relevant competence was needed in the organization. All organizations reported improved attitudes toward individuals with a disability and indicated that integration was a demanding enterprise.
Brian A. Turner and Packianathan Chelladurai
Three hundred twenty-eight intercollegiate coaches (men = 240, women = 88; Division I = 156, Division III = 172) responded to a questionnaire measuring commitment to their university and coaching occupation, intention to leave the organization and occupation, their team standings, and perceptions of their performance. The variables of division, gender, and marital/lifestyle status affected neither organizational nor occupational commitments. Organizational commitments of affective, normative, continuance: high sacrifice, and continuance: low alternatives correlated significantly with intention to leave the organization and cumulatively explained 23.7% of the variance. Affective, normative, and continuance: low alternatives forms of commitment to occupation correlated significantly with intention to leave the occupation and cumulatively explained 23.1% of the variance. The bases of organizational commitment cumulatively explained 5.6% and 4.9% of the variance in subjective and objective performances, respectively. Results suggest that athletic departments should focus on enhancing their coaches’ commitment to the organization in order to retain them.
Trevor Slack and Bob Hinings
Edited by Lucie Thibault
While it is one of the central topics in the study of organizations, the concept of strategy has received little attention in the sport management literature. This paper is, in part, designed to help fill some of this void. Specifically, the purpose of the paper is to empirically verify a framework proposed by Thibault, Slack, and Hinings (1993) for the analysis of strategy in nonprofit sport organizations and to locate a sample of national level sport organizations within this framework according to their strategic type. The results of the study support the existence and utility of the two dimensions identified in Thibault et al.'s framework. They also reveal that there are common characteristics within the organizations that constitute each of the framework's four strategic types. The identification of these characteristics provides us with a preliminary understanding of the strategic initiatives being pursued by those sport organizations.
Cathy Mills and Larena Hoeber
Although some elements of community sport organizations (CSOs) are welcoming and shared across all members, others may be contested. Organizational culture provides a conceptual lens through which to understand the meaning and experiences associated with CSOs. As the outer layer of organizational culture (Schein, 1985), artifacts can give further insight into participant experiences. The purpose of this study is to examine members’ perceptions of artifacts in a local figure skating club. We used Martin’s (1992, 2002) three perspectives to illuminate integrated, differentiated, and fragmented perspectives of The Club’s organizational culture. Eight skaters and seven adults from a midsize figure skating club in Canada participated in photo-elicited interviews. We found integration in participants’ discussion of the unique figure skating facility, differentiated perspectives of achievement-oriented artifacts, and fragmented perspectives of the skaters’ dressing rooms. Our research demonstrates the importance of examining the meanings associated with artifacts in sport organizations.